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Article

Label-Free Sensing of Adenosine Based on Force Variations Induced by Molecular Recognition

by 1,†, 1,†, 1,2 and 1,*
1
Hybrid Materials Interfaces Group, Faculty of Production Engineering, University of Bremen, Am Fallturm 1, 28359 Bremen, Germany
2
Center for Environmental Research and Sustainable Technology (UFT), University of Bremen, Leobener Str., 28359 Bremen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Andrew M. Shaw
Biosensors 2015, 5(1), 85-97; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios5010085
Received: 9 January 2015 / Revised: 25 February 2015 / Accepted: 11 March 2015 / Published: 19 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Label-Free Biosensors: Exploring the Field)
We demonstrate a simple force-based label-free strategy for the highly sensitive sensing of adenosine. An adenosine ssDNA aptamer was bound onto an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe by covalent modification, and the molecular-interface adsorption force between the aptamer and a flat graphite surface was measured by single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS). In the presence of adenosine, the molecular recognition between adenosine and the aptamer resulted in the formation of a folded, hairpin-like DNA structure and hence caused a variation of the adsorption force at the graphite/water interface. The sensitive force response to molecular recognition provided an adenosine detection limit in the range of 0.1 to 1 nM. The addition of guanosine, cytidine, and uridine had no significant interference with the sensing of adenosine, indicating a strong selectivity of this sensor architecture. In addition, operational parameters that may affect the sensor, such as loading rate and solution ionic strength, were investigated. View Full-Text
Keywords: label-free sensing; adenosine; AFM; single-molecule force spectroscopy; aptamer; molecular recognition label-free sensing; adenosine; AFM; single-molecule force spectroscopy; aptamer; molecular recognition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, J.; Li, Q.; Ciacchi, L.C.; Wei, G. Label-Free Sensing of Adenosine Based on Force Variations Induced by Molecular Recognition. Biosensors 2015, 5, 85-97. https://doi.org/10.3390/bios5010085

AMA Style

Li J, Li Q, Ciacchi LC, Wei G. Label-Free Sensing of Adenosine Based on Force Variations Induced by Molecular Recognition. Biosensors. 2015; 5(1):85-97. https://doi.org/10.3390/bios5010085

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Jingfeng, Qing Li, Lucio C. Ciacchi, and Gang Wei. 2015. "Label-Free Sensing of Adenosine Based on Force Variations Induced by Molecular Recognition" Biosensors 5, no. 1: 85-97. https://doi.org/10.3390/bios5010085

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