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Open AccessArticle

Direct Determination of a Small-Molecule Drug, Valproic Acid, by an Electrically-Detected Microcantilever Biosensor for Personalized Diagnostics

1
Institute of Applied Mechanics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
2
Department of Chemical Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 234 Herzl Street, Rehovot 7610001, Israel
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrew Shaw
Biosensors 2015, 5(1), 37-50; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios5010037
Received: 14 November 2014 / Revised: 17 December 2014 / Accepted: 21 January 2015 / Published: 27 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Label-Free Biosensors: Exploring the Field)
Direct, small-molecule determination of the antiepileptic drug, valproic acid, was investigated by a label-free, nanomechanical biosensor. Valproic acid has long been used as an antiepileptic medication, which is administered through therapeutic drug monitoring and has a narrow therapeutic dosage range of 50–100 μg·mL1 in blood or serum. Unlike labeled and clinically-used measurement techniques, the label-free, electrical detection microcantilever biosensor can be miniaturized and simplified for use in portable or hand-held point-of-care platforms or personal diagnostic tools. A micromachined microcantilever sensor was packaged into the micro-channel of a fluidic system. The measurement of the antiepileptic drug, valproic acid, in phosphate-buffered saline and serum used a single free-standing, piezoresistive microcantilever biosensor in a thermally-controlled system. The measured surface stresses showed a profile over a concentration range of 50–500 μg·mL1, which covered the clinically therapeutic range of 50–100 μg·mL1. The estimated limit of detection (LOD) was calculated to be 45 μg·mL−1, and the binding affinity between the drug and the antibody was measured at around 90 ± 21 μg·mL1. Lastly, the results of the proposed device showed a similar profile in valproic acid drug detection with those of the clinically-used fluorescence polarization immunoassay. View Full-Text
Keywords: valproic acid; microcantilever; serum; therapeutic drug monitoring valproic acid; microcantilever; serum; therapeutic drug monitoring
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Huang, L.-S.; Gunawan, C.; Yen, Y.-K.; Chang, K.-F. Direct Determination of a Small-Molecule Drug, Valproic Acid, by an Electrically-Detected Microcantilever Biosensor for Personalized Diagnostics. Biosensors 2015, 5, 37-50.

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