Two-dimensional quantum dots (2D-QDs) derived from two-dimensional sheets have received increasing interest owing to their unique properties, such as large specific surface areas, abundant active sites, good aqueous dispersibility, excellent electrical property, easy functionalization, and so on. A variety of 2D-QDs have been developed based on different materials including graphene, black phosphorus, nitrides, transition metal dichalcogenides, transition metal oxides, and MXenes. These 2D-QDs share some common features due to the quantum confinement effects and they also possess unique properties owing to their structural differences. In this review, we discuss the categories, properties, and synthetic routes of these 2D-QDs and emphasize their applications in electrochemical biosensors. We deeply hope that this review not only stimulates more interest in 2D-QDs, but also promotes further development and applications of 2D-QDs in various research fields.
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