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Article

Urinary Volatiles and Chemical Characterisation for the Non-Invasive Detection of Prostate and Bladder Cancers

1
School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
2
Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Coventry & Warwickshire, Coventry CV2 2DX, UK
3
Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7HL, UK
4
School of Health Sciences, Coventry University, Coventry CV1 5FB, UK
5
School of Biological Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biosensors 2021, 11(11), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11110437
Received: 30 September 2021 / Revised: 27 October 2021 / Accepted: 29 October 2021 / Published: 3 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers Used for the Diagnosis of Diseases)
Bladder cancer (BCa) and prostate cancer (PCa) are some of the most common cancers in the world. In both BCa and PCa, the diagnosis is often confirmed with an invasive technique that carries a risk to the patient. Consequently, a non-invasive diagnostic approach would be medically desirable and beneficial to the patient. The use of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for disease diagnosis, including cancer, is a promising research area that could support the diagnosis process. In this study, we investigated the urinary VOC profiles in BCa, PCa patients and non-cancerous controls by using gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS) and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) to analyse patient samples. GC-IMS separated BCa from PCa (area under the curve: AUC: 0.97 (0.93–1.00)), BCa vs. non-cancerous (AUC: 0.95 (0.90–0.99)) and PCa vs. non-cancerous (AUC: 0.89 (0.83–0.94)) whereas GC-TOF-MS differentiated BCa from PCa (AUC: 0.84 (0.73–0.93)), BCa vs. non-cancerous (AUC: 0.81 (0.70–0.90)) and PCa vs. non-cancerous (AUC: 0.94 (0.90–0.97)). According to our study, a total of 34 biomarkers were found using GC-TOF-MS data, of which 13 VOCs were associated with BCa, seven were associated with PCa, and 14 VOCs were found in the comparison of BCa and PCa. View Full-Text
Keywords: bladder cancer; prostate cancer; urinary biomarkers; urinary VOCs; machine olfaction; GC-IMS; GC-TOF-MS bladder cancer; prostate cancer; urinary biomarkers; urinary VOCs; machine olfaction; GC-IMS; GC-TOF-MS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tyagi, H.; Daulton, E.; Bannaga, A.S.; Arasaradnam, R.P.; Covington, J.A. Urinary Volatiles and Chemical Characterisation for the Non-Invasive Detection of Prostate and Bladder Cancers. Biosensors 2021, 11, 437. https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11110437

AMA Style

Tyagi H, Daulton E, Bannaga AS, Arasaradnam RP, Covington JA. Urinary Volatiles and Chemical Characterisation for the Non-Invasive Detection of Prostate and Bladder Cancers. Biosensors. 2021; 11(11):437. https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11110437

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tyagi, Heena, Emma Daulton, Ayman S. Bannaga, Ramesh P. Arasaradnam, and James A. Covington. 2021. "Urinary Volatiles and Chemical Characterisation for the Non-Invasive Detection of Prostate and Bladder Cancers" Biosensors 11, no. 11: 437. https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11110437

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