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Open AccessArticle

Preparation and Characterization of Self Nano-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System Loaded with Citraland Its Antiproliferative Effect on Colorectal Cells In Vitro

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
China-ASEAN College of Marine Sciences, Xiamen University Malaysia, 43900 Sepang, Malaysia
Department of Clinic and Internal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Sulaymaniyah 0046, Iraq
Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Komar University of Science and Technology, Sarchinar District, 46001 Sulaymaniyah, Iraq
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(7), 1028;
Received: 3 June 2019 / Revised: 17 June 2019 / Accepted: 18 June 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Materials and Natural Extract)
Citral is an active compound naturally found in lemongrass, lemon, and lime. Although this pale-yellow liquid confers low water solubility, the compound has been reported to possess good therapeutic features including antiproliferative and anticancer modalities. The self nano-emulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) is a type of liquid-lipid nanocarrier that is suitable for the loading of insolubilized oil-based compound such as Citral. This study reports the design and optimization of a SNEDDS formulation, synthesis and characterization as well as loading with Citral (CIT-SNEDDS). Further assessment of theantiproliferative effects of CIT-SNEDDS towards colorectal cancer cells was also conducted. SNEDDS composed of coconut oil, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and Tween 80. CIT-SNEDDS was prepared via gentle agitation of SNEDDS with 0.5% Citral for 72 h at room temperature. Physicochemical characterization was performed using several physicochemical analyses. The average particle size of CIT-SNEDDS was16.86 ± 0.15 nm, zeta potential of 0.58 ± 0.19 mV, and polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.23 ± 0.01. In vitro drug release of Citral from CIT-SNEDDS was 79.25% of release, and for Citral the release percentage was 93.56% over 72 h. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was done to determine the cytotoxicity effect of CIT-SNEDDS in human colorectal cancer cell lines HT29 and SW620. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for 72 hof CIT-SNEDDS and Citral on SW620 were 16.50 ± 0.87 µg/mL and 22.50 ± 2.50 µg/mL, respectively. The IC50 values of CIT-SNEDDS and Citral after 72 h of treatment on HT29 were 34.10 ± 0.30 µg/mL and 21.77 ± 0.23 µg/mL, respectively. This study strongly suggests that CIT-SNEDDS has permitted the sustained release of Citral and that CIT-SNEDDS constitutes a potential soluble drug nanocarrier that is effective against colorectal cancer cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: citral; self nano-emulsifying drug delivery system; colorectal cancer citral; self nano-emulsifying drug delivery system; colorectal cancer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mohd Izham, M.N.; Hussin, Y.; Aziz, M.N.M.; Yeap, S.K.; Rahman, H.S.; Masarudin, M.J.; Mohamad, N.E.; Abdullah, R.; Alitheen, N.B. Preparation and Characterization of Self Nano-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System Loaded with Citraland Its Antiproliferative Effect on Colorectal Cells In Vitro. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 1028.

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