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Application of a Molybdenum and Tungsten Disulfide Coating to Improve Tribological Properties of Orthodontic Archwires

1
DDS, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Padua, 35100 Padua, Italy
2
DDS, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy
3
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, 38121 Trento, Italy
4
Department of materials and manufacturing, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, 553 18 Jönköping, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(5), 753; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9050753
Received: 8 April 2019 / Revised: 7 May 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Dentistry)
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Abstract

Coatings incorporating nanoparticles of molybdenum and tungsten disulfide (MoS2 and WS2)—known for their lubricating properties—are applied to orthodontic stainless steel wires to verify if there is an improvement in terms of tribological properties during the sliding of the wire along the bracket. To simulate in vitro sliding of the wire along the bracket and evaluate friction 0.019 × 0.025 inches orthodontic stainless steel (SS) wires were subjected to the application, by electrodeposition, of Ni, Ni + MoS2, and Ni + WS2. The samples produced were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and assessment of resistance to bending. Thirty-two test conditions have been analyzed, arising from the combination of four types of coatings (SS bare wires and strings with three types of coating), two types of self-ligating bracket (Damon Q, Ormco and In-Ovation R, GAC International), two bracket-wire angles (0° and 5°), two environments (dry and wet). Analyses carried out on the samples show acceptable coatings incorporating MoS2 and WS2 and a resistance of coatings after a minimum bending. In “dry conditions” a statistically significant decrease in friction occurs for wires coated with MoS2 and WS2 if associated with the In-Ovation bracket. In “wet conditions” this decrease is observed only in isolated test conditions. Analysis of the wires after sliding tests show little wear of the applied coatings. Nanoparticles are acceptable and similar in their behavior. Improvements in terms of friction are obtained pairing coatings incorporating MoS2 and WS2 with the In-Ovation bracket in dry conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: friction; stainless steel archwires; inorganic nanoparticles friction; stainless steel archwires; inorganic nanoparticles
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Gracco, A.; Dandrea, M.; Deflorian, F.; Zanella, C.; De Stefani, A.; Bruno, G.; Stellini, E. Application of a Molybdenum and Tungsten Disulfide Coating to Improve Tribological Properties of Orthodontic Archwires. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 753.

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