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Improving Two-Step Prepared CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Solar Cells by Co-Doping Potassium Halide and Water in PbI2 Layer

1
Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan
2
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 81148, Taiwan
3
Green Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 31040, Taiwan
4
Hierarchical Green-Energy Materials (Hi-GEM) Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(5), 666; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9050666
Received: 25 March 2019 / Revised: 21 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 27 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Emerging Solar Cells)
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Abstract

Incorporating additives into organic halide perovskite solar cells is the typical approach to improve power conversion efficiency. In this paper, a methyl-ammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3, MAPbI3) organic perovskite film was fabricated using a two-step sequential process on top of the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) hole-transporting layer. Experimentally, water and potassium halides (KCl, KBr, and KI) were incorporated into the PbI2 precursor solution. With only 2 vol% water, the cell efficiency was effectively improved. Without water, the addition of all of the three potassium halides unanimously degraded the performance of the solar cells, although the crystallinity was improved. Co-doping with KI and water showed a pronounced improvement in crystallinity and the elimination of carrier traps, yielding a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 13.9%, which was approximately 60% higher than the pristine reference cell. The effect of metal halide and water co-doping in the PbI2 layer on the performance of organic perovskite solar cells was studied. Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies indicated that a PbI2-dimethylformamide-water related adduct was formed upon co-doping. Photoluminescence enhancement was observed due to the co-doping of KI and water, indicating the defect density was reduced. Finally, the co-doping process was recommended for developing high-performance organic halide perovskite solar cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: perovskite solar cells; water doping; potassium halide doping perovskite solar cells; water doping; potassium halide doping
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Wu, H.-T.; Cheng, Y.-T.; Leu, C.-C.; Wu, S.-H.; Shih, C.-F. Improving Two-Step Prepared CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Solar Cells by Co-Doping Potassium Halide and Water in PbI2 Layer. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 666.

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