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Open AccessArticle

Efficient Ni/Au Mesh Transparent Electrodes for ITO-Free Planar Perovskite Solar Cells

Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Technology Disciplines State Key Laboratory, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071, China
Shaanxi Joint Key Laboratory of Graphene, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071, China
School of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(7), 932;
Received: 4 May 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 28 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Emerging Solar Cells )
PDF [3740 KB, uploaded 28 June 2019]


Indium thin oxide (ITO)-free planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs) were fabricated at a low temperature (150 °C) in this work based on the transparent electrode of photolithography processed nickel/gold (Ni/Au) mesh and the high conductivity polymer, PH1000. Ultrathin Au was introduced to increase the conductivity of metal mesh, and the optimal hexagonal Ni (30 nm)/Au (10 nm) mesh (line width of 5 μm) shows a transmittance close to 80% in the visible light region and a sheet resistance lower than 16.9 Ω/sq. The conductive polymer PH1000 not only smooths the raised surface of the metal mesh but also enhances the charge collection ability of metal mesh. The fabricated PSCs have the typical planar structure (glass/Ni-Au mesh/PH1000/PEDOT:PSS/MAyFA1−yPbIxCl3−x/PCBM/BCP/Ag) and the champion PSC (0.09 cm2) obtains a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 13.88%, negligible current hysteresis, steady current density and PCE outputs, and good process repeatability. Its photovoltaic performance and stability are comparable to the reference PSC based on the ITO electrodes (PCE = 15.70%), which demonstrates that the Ni/Au mesh transparent electrodes are a promising ITO alternative to fabricate efficient PSCs. The relatively lower performance of Ni/Au based PSC results from the relatively slower charge extraction and stronger charge recombination than the ITO based PSC. Further, we tried to fabricate the large area (1 cm2) device and achieve a PCE over 6% with negligible hysteresis and steady current density and PCE outputs. The improvements of perovskite film quality and interface modification should be an effective approach to further enhance the device performance of Ni/Au based PSCs, and the Ni/Au mesh electrode may find wider applications in PSCs and flexible devices. View Full-Text
Keywords: metal mesh; transparent electrode; photolithography; perovskite solar cell; large-area solar cell metal mesh; transparent electrode; photolithography; perovskite solar cell; large-area solar cell

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Chen, D.; Fan, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, W.; Xi, H.; Dong, H.; Pang, S.; He, X.; Lin, Z.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, C.; Hao, Y. Efficient Ni/Au Mesh Transparent Electrodes for ITO-Free Planar Perovskite Solar Cells. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 932.

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