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Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030371

Nanomaterials for Drug Delivery to the Central Nervous System

1
Emergency University Hospital, Bucharest, Romania, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 050474 Bucharest, Romania
2
National Institute for Lasers, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, RO-77125 Magurele, Romania
3
Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, 077125 Magurele, Romania
4
Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Politehnica University of Bucharest, 011061 Bucharest, Romania
5
ICUB—Research Institute of University of Bucharest, University of Bucharest, 36-46 M. Kogalniceanu Blvd., 050107 Bucharest, Romania
6
“Victor Gomoiu” Clinical Children’s Hospital, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 050474 Bucharest, Romania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 February 2019 / Revised: 21 February 2019 / Accepted: 25 February 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocarriers and Targeted Drug Delivery)
Full-Text   |   PDF [639 KB, uploaded 5 March 2019]   |  

Abstract

The intricate microstructure of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is responsible for the accurate intrinsic regulation of the central nervous system (CNS), in terms of neuronal pathophysiological phenomena. Any disruption to the BBB can be associated with genetic defects triggering or with local antigenic invasion (either neurotoxic blood-derived metabolites and residues or microbial pathogens). Such events can be further related to systemic inflammatory or immune disorders, which can subsequently initiate several neurodegenerative pathways. Any degenerative process related to the CNS results in progressive and yet incurable impairment of neuronal cells. Since these particular neurons are mostly scanty or incapable of self-repair and regeneration processes, there is tremendous worldwide interest in novel therapeutic strategies for such specific conditions. Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases (AD and PD, respectively) are conditions found worldwide, being considered the most rampant degenerative pathologies related to CNS. The current therapy of these conditions, including both clinical and experimental approaches, mainly enables symptom management and subsidiary neuronal protection and even less disease regression. Still, a thorough understanding of the BBB pathophysiology and an accurate molecular and sub-molecular management of AD and PD will provide beneficial support for more specific and selective therapy. Since nanotechnology-derived materials and devices proved attractive and efficient platforms for modern biomedicine (including detection, imaging, diagnosis, medication, restoration and regeneration), a particular approach for AD and PD management relies on nanoparticle-based therapy. In this paper we will discuss relevant aspects related to the BBB and its impact on drug-based treatment and emphasize that nanoparticles are suitable and versatile candidates for the development of novel and performance-enhanced nanopharmaceuticals for neurodegenerative conditions therapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: neurodegenerative disease; blood brain barrier; nanoparticles; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease neurodegenerative disease; blood brain barrier; nanoparticles; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease
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Teleanu, D.M.; Negut, I.; Grumezescu, V.; Grumezescu, A.M.; Teleanu, R.I. Nanomaterials for Drug Delivery to the Central Nervous System. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 371.

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