Next Article in Journal
Strain-Tunable Visible-Light-Responsive Photocatalytic Properties of Two-Dimensional CdS/g-C3N4: A Hybrid Density Functional Study
Previous Article in Journal
Micro-Structured Polydopamine Films via Pulsed Electrochemical Deposition
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 243;

The Self-Assembly of Lignin and Its Application in Nanoparticle Synthesis: A Short Review

Department of Wood Processing Technology, Mendel University in Brno, 61300 Brno, Czech Republic
Department of Production Management and Engineering, Warsaw University Of Life Sciences, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 3 February 2019 / Accepted: 4 February 2019 / Published: 11 February 2019
Full-Text   |   PDF [1534 KB, uploaded 12 February 2019]   |  


Lignin serves as a significant contributor to the natural stock of non-fossilized carbon, second only to cellulose in the biosphere. In this review article, we focus on the self-assembly properties of lignin and their contribution to its effective utilization and valorization. Traditionally, investigations on self-assembly properties of lignin have aimed at understanding the lignification process of the cell wall and using it for efficient delignification for commercial purposes. In recent years (mainly the last three years), an increased number of attempts and reports of technical-lignin nanostructure synthesis with controlled particle size and morphology have been published. This has renewed the interests in the self-assembly properties of technical lignins and their possible applications. Based on the sources and processing methods of lignin, there are significant differences between its structure and properties, which is the primary obstacle in the generalized understanding of the lignin structure and the lignification process occurring within cell walls. The reported studies are also specific to source and processing methods. This work has been divided into two parts. In the first part, the aggregation propensity of lignin based on type, source and extraction method, temperature, and pH of solution is discussed. This is followed by a critical overview of non-covalent interactions and their contribution to the self-associative properties of lignin. The role of self-assembly towards the understanding of xylogenesis and nanoparticle synthesis is also discussed. A particular emphasis is placed on the interaction and forces involved that are used to explain the self-association of lignin. View Full-Text
Keywords: lignin; self-assembly; noncovalent interactions; lignin nanoparticles lignin; self-assembly; noncovalent interactions; lignin nanoparticles

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Mishra, P.K.; Ekielski, A. The Self-Assembly of Lignin and Its Application in Nanoparticle Synthesis: A Short Review. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 243.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Nanomaterials EISSN 2079-4991 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top