Nanofluids have great application prospects in industrial heat exchange systems because they can significantly improve the heat and mass transfer efficiency. However, the presence of nanoparticles in the fluid might also affect the formation and attachment of inorganic scales, such as calcium carbonate, on the heat exchange surface. The effects of carbon nanoparticles on the crystallization of calcium carbonate in aqueous solution were studied by the scale inhibition test, solution analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that carbon nanoparticles had an excellent surface scale inhibition performance for calcium carbonate, which could effectively prevent the adhesion of scale on the heat exchange surface. The carbon nanoparticles did not affect the solubility of calcium carbonate in water, but changed the crystal form of the precipitated calcium carbonate, making it difficult to adsorb on the heat exchange surface and achieving a surface scale inhibition effect. Carbon nanofluids effectively inhibit the adhesion of calcium carbonate to heat exchange surfaces.
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