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Open AccessArticle

Influence of Six Carbon-Based Nanomaterials on the Rheological Properties of Nanofluids

1
Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultade de Ciencias, Universidade de Vigo, E-36310 Vigo, Spain
2
Área de Máquinas e Motores Térmicos, Escola de Enxeñería Industrial, Universidade de Vigo, E-36310 Vigo, Spain
3
Department of Physics and Medical Engineering, Rzeszów University of Technology, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020146
Received: 7 January 2019 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanofluids and Nanofluidics)
Nanofluids, dispersions of nanosized solid particles in liquids, have been conceived as thermally-improved heat transfer fluids from their conception. More recently, they have also been considered as alternative working fluids to improve the performance of direct absorption solar thermal collectors, even at low nanoadditive concentrations. Carbon-based nanomaterials have been breaking ground in both applications as nanoadditives during the last decade due to their high thermal conductivities and the huge transformation of optical properties that their addition involves. In any application field, rheological behavior became a central concern because of its implications in the pumping power consumption. In this work, the rheological behavior of four different loaded dispersions (0.25, 0.50, 1.0, and 2.0 wt%) of six carbon-based nanomaterials (carbon black, two different phase content nanodiamonds, two different purity graphite/diamond mixtures, and sulfonic acid-functionalized graphene nanoplatelets) in ethylene glycol:water mixture 50:50 vol% have been analysed. For this purpose, a rotational rheometer with double cone geometry was employed, which included a special cover to avoid mass losses due to evaporation at elevated temperatures. The flow curves of the twenty-four nanofluids and the base fluid were obtained by varying the shear rate between 1 and 1000 s−1 for seven different temperatures in the range from 283.15 to 353.15 K. The shear-thinning behaviors identified, as well as their dependences on carbon-based nanomaterial, concentration, and temperature, were analyzed. In addition, oscillatory tests were performed for samples with the clearest Non-Newtonian response, varying the deformation from 0.1 to 1000% with constant frequency and temperature. The dependence of the behaviors identified on the employed carbon-based nanomaterial was described. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanofluid; rheological behaviour; viscosity; carbon nanomaterials; ethylene glycol; water nanofluid; rheological behaviour; viscosity; carbon nanomaterials; ethylene glycol; water
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vallejo, J.P.; Żyła, G.; Fernández-Seara, J.; Lugo, L. Influence of Six Carbon-Based Nanomaterials on the Rheological Properties of Nanofluids. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 146.

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