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Open AccessArticle

Redox Control of IL-6-Mediated Dental Pulp Stem-Cell Differentiation on Alginate/Hydroxyapatite Biocomposites for Bone Ingrowth

1
Department of Medicine and Ageing Sciences, G. d’ Annunzio University, Via dei Vestini 31, 66100 Chieti-Pescara, Italy
2
Department of Medicine, Surgery and Health Sciences, Trieste University, Piazzale Europa 1, 34127 Trieste, Italy
3
Department of Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, University Hospital Regensburg, University of Regensburg, D-93042 Regensburg, Germany
4
Department of Pharmacy, G. d’ Annunzio University, Via dei Vestini 31, 66100 Chieti-Pescara, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1656; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121656
Received: 30 September 2019 / Revised: 13 November 2019 / Accepted: 19 November 2019 / Published: 21 November 2019
Composites and porous scaffolds produced with biodegradable natural polymers are very promising constructs which show high biocompatibility and suitable mechanical properties, with the possibility to be functionalized with growth factors involved in bone formation. For this purpose, alginate/hydroxyapatite (Alg/HAp) composite scaffolds using a novel production design were successfully developed and tested for their biocompatibility and osteoconductive properties in vitro. Redox homeostasis is crucial for dental pulp stem cell (DPSC) differentiation and mineralized matrix deposition, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) was found to be involved not only in immunomodulation but also in cell proliferation and differentiation. In the present study, we evaluated molecular pathways underlying the intracellular balance between redox homeostasis and extracellular matrix mineralization of DPSCs in the presence of composite scaffolds made of alginate and nano-hydroxyapatite (Alg/HAp). Prostaglandin-2 (PGE2) and IL-6 secretion was monitored by ELISA assays, and protein expression levels were quantified by Western blotting. This work aims to demonstrate a relationship between DPSC capacity to secrete a mineralized matrix in the presence of Alg/HAp scaffolds and their immunomodulatory properties. The variation of the molecular axis Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2)/PGE2/IL-6 suggests a tight intracellular balance between oxidative stress responses and DPSC differentiation in the presence of Alg/HAp scaffolds.
Keywords: oxidative stress; Nrf2; IL-6; mineralization; dental pulp; scaffolds; alginate; hydroxyapatite; immunomodulation; nanomaterials oxidative stress; Nrf2; IL-6; mineralization; dental pulp; scaffolds; alginate; hydroxyapatite; immunomodulation; nanomaterials
MDPI and ACS Style

Sancilio, S.; Marsich, E.; Schweikl, H.; Cataldi, A.; Gallorini, M. Redox Control of IL-6-Mediated Dental Pulp Stem-Cell Differentiation on Alginate/Hydroxyapatite Biocomposites for Bone Ingrowth. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 1656.

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