Next Article in Journal
Biomarkers-based Biosensing and Bioimaging with Graphene for Cancer Diagnosis
Next Article in Special Issue
Drain Current Model for Double Gate Tunnel-FETs with InAs/Si Heterojunction and Source-Pocket Architecture
Previous Article in Journal
Engineering Planar Transverse Domain Walls in Biaxial Magnetic Nanostrips by Tailoring Transverse Magnetic Fields with Uniform Orientation
Previous Article in Special Issue
Quantum-Mechanical Study of Nanocomposites with Low and Ultra-Low Interface Energies
Open AccessArticle

Tin, The Enabler—Hydrogen Diffusion into Ruthenium

1
Center for Computational Energy Research, DIFFER—Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, 5612 AJ Eindhoven, The Netherlands
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands
3
Plasma Material Interactions, DIFFER—Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, 5612 AJ Eindhoven, The Netherlands
4
Center for Computational Energy Research, Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(1), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9010129
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
Hydrogen interaction with ruthenium is of particular importance for the ruthenium-capped multilayer reflectors used in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. Hydrogen causes blistering, which leads to a loss of reflectivity. This problem is aggravated by tin. This study aims to uncover the mechanism via which tin affects the hydrogen uptake, with a view to mitigation. We report here the results of a study of hydrogen interaction with the ruthenium surface in the presence of tin using Density Functional Theory and charge density analyses. Our calculations show a significant drop in the energy barrier to hydrogen penetration when a tin atom or a tin hydride molecule (SnHx) is adsorbed on the ruthenium surface; the barrier has been found to drop in all tested cases with tin, from 1.06 eV to as low as 0.28 eV in the case of stannane (SnH4). Analyses show that, due to charge transfer from the less electronegative tin to hydrogen and ruthenium, charge accumulates around the diffusing hydrogen atom and near the ruthenium surface atoms. The reduced atomic volume of hydrogen, together with the effect of electron–electron repulsion from the ruthenium surface charge, facilitates subsurface penetration. Understanding the nature of tin’s influence on hydrogen penetration will guide efforts to mitigate blistering damage of EUV optics. It also holds great interest for applications where hydrogen penetration is desirable, such as hydrogen storage. View Full-Text
Keywords: DFT; surface; hydrogen; ruthenium; tin; transition state; electronegativity; bond order DFT; surface; hydrogen; ruthenium; tin; transition state; electronegativity; bond order
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Onwudinanti, C.; Tranca, I.; Morgan, T.; Tao, S. Tin, The Enabler—Hydrogen Diffusion into Ruthenium. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 129.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop