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Development of Magnetically Active Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration

Escuela de Ingeniería de Bilbao, Departamento de Ingeniería Minera, Metalúrgica y Ciencia de Materiales, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), 48920 Portugalete, Spain
BCMaterials, Basque Centre for Materials, Applications and Nanostructures, UPV/EHU Science Park, 48940 Leioa, Spain
Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Spain
Centro/Departamento de Física, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
Centre of Molecular and Environmental Biology (CBMA), Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48013 Bilbao, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(9), 678;
Received: 1 August 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 30 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles in Biological Applications)
PDF [3676 KB, uploaded 31 August 2018]


This work reports on the synthesis, with the thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) technique, of poly (l-lactide) (PLLA) scaffolds containing Fe-doped hydroxyapatite (FeHA) particles for bone regeneration. Magnetization curves and X-ray diffraction indicate two magnetic particle phases: FeHA and magnetite Fe3O4. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are approximately 30 ± 5 nm in width and 125 ± 25 nm in length, and show typical ferromagnetic properties, including coercivity and rapid saturation magnetization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the magnetic scaffolds reveal their complex morphology changes with MNP concentration. Similarly, at compositions of approximately 20% MNPs, the phase separation changes, passing from solid–liquid to liquid–liquid as revealed by the hill-like structures, with low peaks that give the walls in the SEM images a surface pattern of micro-ruggedness typical of nucleation mechanisms and growth. In vitro degradation experiments, carried out for more than 28 weeks, demonstrated that the MNPs delay the scaffold degradation process. Cytotoxicity is appreciated for FeHA content above 20%. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fe-doped hydroxyapatite; poly (l-lactide); scaffolds; magnetism; cytotoxicity Fe-doped hydroxyapatite; poly (l-lactide); scaffolds; magnetism; cytotoxicity

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Díaz, E.; Valle, M.B.; Ribeiro, S.; Lanceros-Mendez, S.; Barandiarán, J.M. Development of Magnetically Active Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 678.

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