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Nanomaterials 2018, 8(6), 408;

Dose- and Time-Dependent Cytotoxicity of Layered Black Phosphorus in Fibroblastic Cells

Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, College of Nanoscience & Nanotechnology, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea
Research Center for Energy Convergence Technology, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea
Advanced Nano-surface Research Group, Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI), Daejeon 34133, Korea
Dental Life Science Research Institute, Seoul National University Dental Hospital, Seoul 03080, Korea
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, Korea
The authors contributed equally.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 May 2018 / Revised: 31 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 June 2018 / Published: 6 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Two Faces of Nanomaterials: Toxicity and Bioactivity)
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Black phosphorus (BP) is a monolayer/multilayer two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial, which has recently emerged as one of the most attractive 2D nanomaterials due to its fascinating physicochemical and optoelectronical properties. Layered BP may have promising applications in biomedical fields, such as drug delivery, photodynamic/photothermal therapy and bioimaging, although its intrinsic toxicity has not been fully elucidated yet. In the present study, the cytotoxicological effects of layered BP on both cell metabolic activity and membrane integrity were investigated. Layered BPs were prepared using a modified ultrasonication-assisted solution method, and their physicochemical properties were characterized. The dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity of layered BP was assessed against L-929 fibroblasts. Our findings indicate that the cytotoxicity of BPs is proportionally dependent on their concentration and exposure time, which is affected by the oxidative stress-mediated enzyme activity reduction and membrane disruption. On the other hand, layered BPs did not exhibit significant cytotoxicity at concentrations lower than 4 μg/mL. Therefore, it is suggested that layered BPs can be effectively utilized as therapeutic delivery carriers and imaging agents. View Full-Text
Keywords: black phosphorus; 2D nanomaterial; cytotoxicity; biomedical application black phosphorus; 2D nanomaterial; cytotoxicity; biomedical application

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Song, S.-J.; Shin, Y.C.; Lee, H.U.; Kim, B.; Han, D.-W.; Lim, D. Dose- and Time-Dependent Cytotoxicity of Layered Black Phosphorus in Fibroblastic Cells. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 408.

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