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Nanomaterials 2018, 8(9), 722; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8090722

Enhanced Photodynamic Anticancer Activities of Multifunctional Magnetic Nanoparticles (Fe3O4) Conjugated with Chlorin e6 and Folic Acid in Prostate and Breast Cancer Cells

1
Institute of Biomaterials, Kwangwoon University, Nowon-gu, Seoul 01897, Korea
2
Department of Medical Engineering, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Gyeonggi-do 10326, Korea
3
Department of Electrical & Biological Physics, Kwangwoon University, Nowon-gu, Seoul 01897, Korea
4
Department of Chemistry, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung 25457, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 August 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Two Faces of Nanomaterials: Toxicity and Bioactivity)
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Abstract

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising alternative to conventional cancer treatment methods. Nonetheless, improvement of in vivo light penetration and cancer cell-targeting efficiency remain major challenges in clinical photodynamic therapy. This study aimed to develop multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with a photosensitizer (PS) and cancer-targeting molecules via a simple surface modification process for PDT. To selectively target cancer cells and PDT functionality, core magnetic (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were covalently bound with chlorin e6 (Ce6) as a PS and folic acid (FA). When irradiated with a 660-nm long-wavelength light source, the Fe3O4-Ce6-FA nanoparticles with good biocompatibility exerted marked anticancer effects via apoptosis, as confirmed by analyzing the translocation of the plasma membrane, nuclear fragmentation, activities of caspase-3/7 in prostate (PC-3) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells. Ce6, used herein as a PS, is thus more useful for PDT because of its ability to produce a high singlet oxygen quantum yield, which is owed to deep penetration by virtue of its long-wavelength absorption band; however, further in vivo studies are required to verify its biological effects for clinical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles; chlorin e6; folic acid; in vivo penetration depth; cancer cell targeting multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles; chlorin e6; folic acid; in vivo penetration depth; cancer cell targeting
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Choi, K.-H.; Nam, K.C.; Cho, G.; Jung, J.-S.; Park, B.J. Enhanced Photodynamic Anticancer Activities of Multifunctional Magnetic Nanoparticles (Fe3O4) Conjugated with Chlorin e6 and Folic Acid in Prostate and Breast Cancer Cells. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 722.

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