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Nanomaterials 2018, 8(4), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8040232

In Vitro Dermal Safety Assessment of Silver Nanowires after Acute Exposure: Tissue vs. Cell Models

1
Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Univ. Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS, IRD, IFSTTAR, ISTerre, 38000 Grenoble, France
2
Energy Geoscience Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
3
Centre for Nanohealth, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea SA1 8EN, UK
4
INSERM, UGA, Institute for Advanced Biosciences, F-38000 Grenoble, France
5
Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble INP, F-38000 Grenoble, France
6
Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble, France
7
CEA, LITEN, DTNM, NanoSafety Platform, F-38054 Grenoble, France
8
Univ. Grenoble Alpes, INAC, SyMMES, F-38000 Grenoble, France
9
CEA, INAC, SyMMES, F-38054 Grenoble, France
10
Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LBFA et BEeSy, PROMETHEE Proteomic Platform, F-38000 Grenoble, France
11
INSERM, U1055, PROMETHEE Proteomic Platform, F-38000 Grenoble, France
12
CHU Grenoble Alpes, Institut de Biologie et de Pathologie, PROMETHEE Proteomic Platform, F-38000 Grenoble, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 February 2018 / Revised: 23 March 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 11 April 2018
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Abstract

Silver nanowires (AgNW) are attractive materials that are anticipated to be incorporated into numerous consumer products such as textiles, touchscreen display, and medical devices that could be in direct contact with skin. There are very few studies on the cellular toxicity of AgNW and no studies that have specifically evaluated the potential toxicity from dermal exposure. To address this question, we investigated the dermal toxicity after acute exposure of polymer-coated AgNW with two sizes using two models, human primary keratinocytes and human reconstructed epidermis. In keratinocytes, AgNW are rapidly and massively internalized inside cells leading to dose-dependent cytotoxicity that was not due to Ag+ release. Analysing our data with different dose metrics, we propose that the number of NW is the most appropriate dose-metric for studies of AgNW toxicity. In reconstructed epidermis, the results of a standard in vitro skin irritation assay classified AgNW as non-irritant to skin and we found no evidence of penetration into the deeper layer of the epidermis. The findings show that healthy and intact epidermis provides an effective barrier for AgNW, although the study does not address potential transport through follicles or injured skin. The combined cell and tissue model approach used here is likely to provide an important methodology for assessing the risks for skin exposure to AgNW from consumer products. View Full-Text
Keywords: silver nanowires; cytotoxicity; skin irritation in vitro; primary keratinocytes; 3D reconstructed epidermis model silver nanowires; cytotoxicity; skin irritation in vitro; primary keratinocytes; 3D reconstructed epidermis model
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Lehmann, S.G.; Gilbert, B.; Maffeis, T.G.; Grichine, A.; Pignot-Paintrand, I.; Clavaguera, S.; Rachidi, W.; Seve, M.; Charlet, L. In Vitro Dermal Safety Assessment of Silver Nanowires after Acute Exposure: Tissue vs. Cell Models. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 232.

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