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Nanomaterials 2017, 7(10), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7100316

Periodic TiO2 Nanostructures with Improved Aspect and Line/Space Ratio Realized by Colloidal Photolithography Technique

1
Lyon, UJM-Saint-Etienne, Laboratoire Hubert Curien UMR 5516, CNRS, Institut d’Optique Graduate School, F-42023 Saint-Etienne, France
2
Laboratoire des Composants pour le Conversion de l’Energie (L2CE), Laboratoire d’Innovation pour les Technologies des Energies Nouvelles et des nanomatériaux (CEA/LITEN), F-38054 Grenoble, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 29 September 2017 / Accepted: 5 October 2017 / Published: 12 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ZnO and TiO2 Based Nanostructures)
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Abstract

This paper presents substantial improvements of the colloidal photolithography technique (also called microsphere lithography) with the goal of better controlling the geometry of the fabricated nano-scale structures—in this case, hexagonally arranged nanopillars—printed in a layer of directly photopatternable sol-gel TiO2. Firstly, to increase the achievable structure height the photosensitive layer underneath the microspheres is deposited on a reflective layer instead of the usual transparent substrate. Secondly, an increased width of the pillars is achieved by tilting the incident wave and using multiple exposures or substrate rotation, additionally allowing to better control the shape of the pillar’s cross section. The theoretical analysis is carried out by rigorous modelling of the photonics nanojet underneath the microspheres and by optimizing the experimental conditions. Aspect ratios (structure height/lateral structure size) greater than 2 are predicted and demonstrated experimentally for structure dimensions in the sub micrometer range, as well as line/space ratios (lateral pillar size/distance between pillars) greater than 1. These nanostructures could lead for example to materials exhibiting efficient light trapping in the visible and near-infrared range, as well as improved hydrophobic or photocatalytic properties for numerous applications in environmental and photovoltaic systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: sol-gel; TiO2; sub-wavelength structures; colloidal photolithography sol-gel; TiO2; sub-wavelength structures; colloidal photolithography
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Berthod, L.; Shavdina, O.; Verrier, I.; Kämpfe, T.; Dellea, O.; Vocanson, F.; Bichotte, M.; Jamon, D.; Jourlin, Y. Periodic TiO2 Nanostructures with Improved Aspect and Line/Space Ratio Realized by Colloidal Photolithography Technique. Nanomaterials 2017, 7, 316.

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