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Surface Functionalization of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles with Gallic Acid as Potential Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agents

Nanotechnology & Catalysis Research Centre (NANOCAT), University of Malaya, Block A, Level 3, Institute of Postgraduate Studies Building, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(10), 306;
Received: 5 August 2017 / Revised: 28 August 2017 / Accepted: 30 August 2017 / Published: 5 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles in Biological Applications)
PDF [867 KB, uploaded 5 October 2017]


In this research, we report the size-controlled synthesis and surface-functionalization of magnetite with the natural antioxidant gallic acid (GA) as a ligand, using in situ and post-synthesis methods. GA functionalization provided narrow size distribution, with an average particle size of 5 and 8 nm for in situ synthesis of gallic acid functionalized magnetite [email protected] and [email protected], respectively, which are ultra-small particles as compared to unfunctionalized magnetite (IONP) and post functionalized magnetite [email protected] with average size of 10 and 11 nm respectively. All the [email protected] samples were found hydrophilic with stable aggregation state. Prior to commencement of experimental lab work, PASS software was used to predict the biological activities of GA and it is found that experimental antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and antimicrobial studies using well diffusion method are in good agreement with the simulated results. Furthermore, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of DPPH antioxidant assay revealed a 2–4 fold decrease as compared to unfunctionalized IONP. In addition to antioxidant activity, all the three [email protected] proved outstanding antimicrobial activity while testing on different bacterial and fungal strains. The results collectively indicate the successful fabrication of novel antioxidant, antimicrobial [email protected] composite, which are magnetically separable, efficient, and low cost, with potential applications in polymers, cosmetics, and biomedical and food industries. View Full-Text
Keywords: gallic acid; nanoantioxidant; DPPH; functionalization; antimicrobial gallic acid; nanoantioxidant; DPPH; functionalization; antimicrobial

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Shah, S.T.; A Yehya, W.; Saad, O.; Simarani, K.; Chowdhury, Z.; A. Alhadi, A.; Al-Ani, L.A. Surface Functionalization of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles with Gallic Acid as Potential Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agents. Nanomaterials 2017, 7, 306.

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