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Article

Synthesis and Nanoarchitectonics of Novel Squaraine Derivatives for Organic Photovoltaic Devices

1
Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb, Marulićev trg 20, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2
Department of Inorganic Chemical Technology and Non-Metals, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb, Marulićev trg 20, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
3
Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Materials, NAWI Graz, Graz University of Technology, Stremayrgasse 9, 8010 Graz, Austria
4
Xellia Ltd., Slavonska Avenija bb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sam Zhang
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(7), 1206; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12071206
Received: 14 March 2022 / Revised: 31 March 2022 / Accepted: 1 April 2022 / Published: 4 April 2022
Necessary advancements in the area of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices include the upgrade of power conversion efficiencies (PCE) and stability. One answer to these demands lies in the research into new absorbers. Here, we focus on the development of new small molecule absorbers from the group of squaraines (SQs). These modular absorbers can be applied as donors in organic solar cells and have the ability to utilize a broad range of solar radiation if blended with suitable acceptors. In order to allow for the compatibility and favorable organization of donor and acceptor in the absorber layer, we intend to optimize the structure of the SQ by varying the groups attached to the squaric acid core. For that purpose, we accordingly developed a well-suited synthesis route. The novel alkyl- and benzyl-substituted aryl aminosquaraines were synthesized through an improved and eco-friendly procedure. Special emphasis was placed on optimizing the amination reaction to obtain initial precursors in the synthesis of squaraine, avoiding hitherto common catalytic processes. All SQ precursors and SQ products were completely described. The derived SQs were additionally characterized in thin-film configuration using cyclic voltammetry and UV-VIS spectroscopy and then processed to prepare self-standing bulk heterojunction (BHJ) thin films in conjunction with fullerene-based electron acceptors, which were characterized via profilometry. The comparison between SQ and BHJ solutions and thin films, using atomic force microscopy and UV-VIS spectroscopy, revealed differences in susceptibility for the organization and orientation of the constituting domains. View Full-Text
Keywords: squaraines; alkyl/aryl aminosquaraine; amination synthesis; hybrid–organic photovoltaics; bulk heterojunction squaraines; alkyl/aryl aminosquaraine; amination synthesis; hybrid–organic photovoltaics; bulk heterojunction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vuk, D.; Radovanović-Perić, F.; Mandić, V.; Lovrinčević, V.; Rath, T.; Panžić, I.; Le-Cunff, J. Synthesis and Nanoarchitectonics of Novel Squaraine Derivatives for Organic Photovoltaic Devices. Nanomaterials 2022, 12, 1206. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12071206

AMA Style

Vuk D, Radovanović-Perić F, Mandić V, Lovrinčević V, Rath T, Panžić I, Le-Cunff J. Synthesis and Nanoarchitectonics of Novel Squaraine Derivatives for Organic Photovoltaic Devices. Nanomaterials. 2022; 12(7):1206. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12071206

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vuk, Dragana, Floren Radovanović-Perić, Vilko Mandić, Vilma Lovrinčević, Thomas Rath, Ivana Panžić, and Jerome Le-Cunff. 2022. "Synthesis and Nanoarchitectonics of Novel Squaraine Derivatives for Organic Photovoltaic Devices" Nanomaterials 12, no. 7: 1206. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12071206

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