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Review

Carbon-Based Nanocatalysts (CnCs) for Biomass Valorization and Hazardous Organics Remediation

1
Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
2
Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw, Poland
3
Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Innovation (CIRI-AUTH), 57001 Thessaloniki, Greece
4
Faculty of Engineering, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Medellín 50031, Colombia
5
Institute of Chemistry for Life and Health Sciences, Chimie ParisTech, PSL Research University, CNRS, UMR8060, 11 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75005 Paris, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sónia Carabineiro
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(10), 1679; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12101679
Received: 7 April 2022 / Revised: 9 May 2022 / Accepted: 10 May 2022 / Published: 14 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoscale Materials for Water Purification and Catalysis)
The continuous increase of the demand in merchandise and fuels augments the need of modern approaches for the mass-production of renewable chemicals derived from abundant feedstocks, like biomass, as well as for the water and soil remediation pollution resulting from the anthropogenic discharge of organic compounds. Towards these directions and within the concept of circular (bio)economy, the development of efficient and sustainable catalytic processes is of paramount importance. Within this context, the design of novel catalysts play a key role, with carbon-based nanocatalysts (CnCs) representing one of the most promising class of materials. In this review, a wide range of CnCs utilized for biomass valorization towards valuable chemicals production, and for environmental remediation applications are summarized and discussed. Emphasis is given in particular on the catalytic production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) from cellulose or starch-rich food waste, the hydrogenolysis of lignin towards high bio-oil yields enriched predominately in alkyl and oxygenated phenolic monomers, the photocatalytic, sonocatalytic or sonophotocatalytic selective partial oxidation of 5-HMF to 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF) and the decomposition of organic pollutants in aqueous matrixes. The carbonaceous materials were utilized as stand-alone catalysts or as supports of (nano)metals are various types of activated micro/mesoporous carbons, graphene/graphite and the chemically modified counterparts like graphite oxide and reduced graphite oxide, carbon nanotubes, carbon quantum dots, graphitic carbon nitride, and fullerenes. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon-based nanocatalysts; heterogeneous catalysis; photocatalysis; sonocatalysis; sonophotocatalysis; lignin hydrogenolysis; 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) to 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF); biomass valorization; hazardous organics remediation carbon-based nanocatalysts; heterogeneous catalysis; photocatalysis; sonocatalysis; sonophotocatalysis; lignin hydrogenolysis; 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) to 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF); biomass valorization; hazardous organics remediation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Giannakoudakis, D.A.; Zormpa, F.F.; Margellou, A.G.; Qayyum, A.; Colmenares-Quintero, R.F.; Len, C.; Colmenares, J.C.; Triantafyllidis, K.S. Carbon-Based Nanocatalysts (CnCs) for Biomass Valorization and Hazardous Organics Remediation. Nanomaterials 2022, 12, 1679. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12101679

AMA Style

Giannakoudakis DA, Zormpa FF, Margellou AG, Qayyum A, Colmenares-Quintero RF, Len C, Colmenares JC, Triantafyllidis KS. Carbon-Based Nanocatalysts (CnCs) for Biomass Valorization and Hazardous Organics Remediation. Nanomaterials. 2022; 12(10):1679. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12101679

Chicago/Turabian Style

Giannakoudakis, Dimitrios A., Foteini F. Zormpa, Antigoni G. Margellou, Abdul Qayyum, Ramón F. Colmenares-Quintero, Christophe Len, Juan C. Colmenares, and Konstantinos S. Triantafyllidis. 2022. "Carbon-Based Nanocatalysts (CnCs) for Biomass Valorization and Hazardous Organics Remediation" Nanomaterials 12, no. 10: 1679. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12101679

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