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Review

Molecular Pathogenesis of Colorectal Cancer with an Emphasis on Recent Advances in Biomarkers, as Well as Nanotechnology-Based Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approaches

1
Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Jouf University, Aljouf 72341, Saudi Arabia
2
Department of Pharmacy, Shri Rawatpura Sarkar University, Raipur 492015, India
3
Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
4
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11884, Egypt
5
Department of Pharmaceutical Science, Assam University (A Central University), Silchar 788011, India
6
Department of Pharmaceutical Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya 60115, Indonesia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Angelo Ferraro
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010169
Received: 2 November 2021 / Revised: 22 December 2021 / Accepted: 24 December 2021 / Published: 4 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Biomedical and Biotechnological Applications)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a serious disease that affects millions of people throughout the world, despite considerable advances in therapy. The formation of colorectal adenomas and invasive adenocarcinomas is the consequence of a succession of genetic and epigenetic changes in the normal colonic epithelium. Genetic and epigenetic processes associated with the onset, development, and metastasis of sporadic CRC have been studied in depth, resulting in identifying biomarkers that might be used to predict behaviour and prognosis beyond staging and influence therapeutic options. A novel biomarker, or a group of biomarkers, must be discovered in order to build an accurate and clinically useful test that may be used as an alternative to conventional methods for the early detection of CRC and to identify prospective new therapeutic intervention targets. To minimise the mortality burden of colorectal cancer, new screening methods with higher accuracy and nano-based diagnostic precision are needed. Cytotoxic medication has negative side effects and is restricted by medication resistance. One of the most promising cancer treatment techniques is the use of nano-based carrier system as a medication delivery mechanism. To deliver cytotoxic medicines, targeted nanoparticles might take advantage of differently expressed molecules on the surface of cancer cells. The use of different compounds as ligands on the surface of nanoparticles to interact with cancer cells, enabling the efficient delivery of antitumor medicines. Formulations based on nanoparticles might aid in early cancer diagnosis and help to overcome the limitations of traditional treatments, including low water solubility, nonspecific biodistribution, and restricted bioavailability. This article addresses about the molecular pathogenesis of CRC and highlights about biomarkers. It also provides conceptual knowledge of nanotechnology-based diagnostic techniques and therapeutic approaches for malignant colorectal cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: colorectal cancer; biomarkers; cytotoxic medication; nanotechnology; genetic pathways; epigenetic changes; prognostic; phytomedicine colorectal cancer; biomarkers; cytotoxic medication; nanotechnology; genetic pathways; epigenetic changes; prognostic; phytomedicine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Joufi, F.A.; Setia, A.; Salem-Bekhit, M.M.; Sahu, R.K.; Alqahtani, F.Y.; Widyowati, R.; Aleanizy, F.S. Molecular Pathogenesis of Colorectal Cancer with an Emphasis on Recent Advances in Biomarkers, as Well as Nanotechnology-Based Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approaches. Nanomaterials 2022, 12, 169. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010169

AMA Style

Al-Joufi FA, Setia A, Salem-Bekhit MM, Sahu RK, Alqahtani FY, Widyowati R, Aleanizy FS. Molecular Pathogenesis of Colorectal Cancer with an Emphasis on Recent Advances in Biomarkers, as Well as Nanotechnology-Based Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approaches. Nanomaterials. 2022; 12(1):169. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010169

Chicago/Turabian Style

Al-Joufi, Fakhria A., Aseem Setia, Mounir M. Salem-Bekhit, Ram K. Sahu, Fulwah Y. Alqahtani, Retno Widyowati, and Fadilah S. Aleanizy. 2022. "Molecular Pathogenesis of Colorectal Cancer with an Emphasis on Recent Advances in Biomarkers, as Well as Nanotechnology-Based Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approaches" Nanomaterials 12, no. 1: 169. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010169

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