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Article

Effect of the Heating Rate to Prevent the Generation of Iron Oxides during the Hydrothermal Synthesis of LiFePO4

1
Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology, Faculty of Sciences, International Excellence Agrifood Campus (CeiA3), University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Spain
2
Department of Inorganic Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University Institute of Nanochemistry (IUNAN), University of Cordoba, 14071 Córdoba, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ivan Stoikov and Pavel Padnya
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(9), 2412; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092412
Received: 4 August 2021 / Revised: 8 September 2021 / Accepted: 14 September 2021 / Published: 16 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Micro- and Nanoparticles: Self-Assembly and Application)
Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have gained much interest in recent years because of the increasing energy demand and the relentless progression of climate change. About 30% of the manufacturing cost for LIBs is spent on cathode materials, and its level of development is lower than the negative electrode, separator diaphragm and electrolyte, therefore becoming the “controlling step”. Numerous cathodic materials have been employed, LiFePO4 being the most relevant one mainly because of its excellent performance, as well as its rated capacity (170 mA·h·g−1) and practical operating voltage (3.5 V vs. Li+/Li). Nevertheless, producing micro and nanoparticles with high purity levels, avoiding the formation of iron oxides, and reducing the operating cost are still some of the aspects still to be improved. In this work, we have applied two heating rates (slow and fast) to the same hydrothermal synthesis process with the main objective of obtaining, without any reducing agents, the purest possible LiFePO4 in the shortest time and with the lowest proportion of magnetite impurities. The reagents initially used were: FeSO4, H3PO4, and LiOH, and a crucial phenomenon has been observed in the temperature range between 130 and 150 °C, being verified with various techniques such as XRD and SEM. View Full-Text
Keywords: lithium iron phosphate; hydrothermal synthesis; heating rate; morphology; crystallinity and purity lithium iron phosphate; hydrothermal synthesis; heating rate; morphology; crystallinity and purity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ruiz-Jorge, F.; Benítez, A.; García-Jarana, M.B.; Sánchez-Oneto, J.; Portela, J.R.; Martínez de la Ossa, E.J. Effect of the Heating Rate to Prevent the Generation of Iron Oxides during the Hydrothermal Synthesis of LiFePO4. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 2412. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092412

AMA Style

Ruiz-Jorge F, Benítez A, García-Jarana MB, Sánchez-Oneto J, Portela JR, Martínez de la Ossa EJ. Effect of the Heating Rate to Prevent the Generation of Iron Oxides during the Hydrothermal Synthesis of LiFePO4. Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(9):2412. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092412

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ruiz-Jorge, Francisco, Almudena Benítez, M. B. García-Jarana, Jezabel Sánchez-Oneto, Juan R. Portela, and Enrique J. Martínez de la Ossa 2021. "Effect of the Heating Rate to Prevent the Generation of Iron Oxides during the Hydrothermal Synthesis of LiFePO4" Nanomaterials 11, no. 9: 2412. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092412

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