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Article

Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Diospyros malabarica Fruit Extract and Assessments of Their Antimicrobial, Anticancer and Catalytic Reduction of 4-Nitrophenol (4-NP)

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Department of Bioengineering and Technology, Gauhati University Institute of Science and Technology, Guwahati 781014, Assam, India
2
SIAN Institute, Association for Biodiversity Conservation and Research (ABC), Balasore 756001, Odisha, India
3
Centre of Excellence, Khallikote University, Berhampur, Ganjam 761008, Odisha, India
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Department of Chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam, India
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Malda Polytechnic, West Bengal State Council of Technical Education, Government of West Bengal, Malda 732102, West Bengal, India
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Department of Food Technology and Biochemical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, West Bengal, India
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Faculty of Agro Based Industry, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Jeli 17600, Kelantan, Malaysia
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School of Health Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Giovanni Benelli
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(8), 1999; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11081999
Received: 30 June 2021 / Revised: 30 July 2021 / Accepted: 30 July 2021 / Published: 4 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Synthesis of Nanomaterials and Their Biological Applications)
The green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has currently been gaining wide applications in the medical field of nanomedicine. Green synthesis is one of the most effective procedures for the production of AgNPs. The Diospyros malabarica tree grown throughout India has been reported to have antioxidant and various therapeutic applications. In the context of this, we have investigated the fruit of Diospyros malabarica for the potential of forming AgNPs and analyzed its antibacterial and anticancer activity. We have developed a rapid, single-step, cost-effective and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of AgNPs using Diospyros malabarica aqueous fruit extract at room temperature. The AgNPs began to form just after the reaction was initiated. The formation and characterization of AgNPs were confirmed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, XRD, FTIR, DLS, Zeta potential, FESEM, EDX, TEM and photoluminescence (PL) methods. The average size of AgNPs, in accordance with TEM results, was found to be 17.4 nm. The antibacterial activity of the silver nanoparticles against pathogenic microorganism strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was confirmed by the well diffusion method and was found to inhibit the growth of the bacteria with an average zone of inhibition size of (8.4 ± 0.3 mm and 12.1 ± 0.5 mm) and (6.1 ± 0.7 mm and 13.1 ± 0.5 mm) at 500 and 1000 µg/mL concentrations of AgNPs, respectively. The anticancer effect of the AgNPs was confirmed by MTT assay using the U87-MG (human primary glioblastoma) cell line. The IC50 value was found to be 58.63 ± 5.74 μg/mL. The results showed that green synthesized AgNPs exhibited significant antimicrobial and anticancer potency. In addition, nitrophenols, which are regarded as priority pollutants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), can also be catalytically reduced to less toxic aminophenols by utilizing synthesized AgNPs. As a model reaction, AgNPs are employed as a catalyst in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, which is an intermediate for numerous analgesics and antipyretic drugs. Thus, the study is expected to help immensely in the pharmaceutical industries in developing antimicrobial drugs and/or as an anticancer drug, as well as in the cosmetic and food industries. View Full-Text
Keywords: silver nanoparticles; Diospyros malabarica; antibacterial; anticancer; catalyst; 4-nitrophenol silver nanoparticles; Diospyros malabarica; antibacterial; anticancer; catalyst; 4-nitrophenol
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bharadwaj, K.K.; Rabha, B.; Pati, S.; Choudhury, B.K.; Sarkar, T.; Gogoi, S.K.; Kakati, N.; Baishya, D.; Kari, Z.A.; Edinur, H.A. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Diospyros malabarica Fruit Extract and Assessments of Their Antimicrobial, Anticancer and Catalytic Reduction of 4-Nitrophenol (4-NP). Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 1999. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11081999

AMA Style

Bharadwaj KK, Rabha B, Pati S, Choudhury BK, Sarkar T, Gogoi SK, Kakati N, Baishya D, Kari ZA, Edinur HA. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Diospyros malabarica Fruit Extract and Assessments of Their Antimicrobial, Anticancer and Catalytic Reduction of 4-Nitrophenol (4-NP). Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(8):1999. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11081999

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bharadwaj, Kaushik K., Bijuli Rabha, Siddhartha Pati, Bhabesh K. Choudhury, Tanmay Sarkar, Sonit K. Gogoi, Nayanjyoti Kakati, Debabrat Baishya, Zulhisyam A. Kari, and Hisham A. Edinur 2021. "Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Diospyros malabarica Fruit Extract and Assessments of Their Antimicrobial, Anticancer and Catalytic Reduction of 4-Nitrophenol (4-NP)" Nanomaterials 11, no. 8: 1999. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11081999

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