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Review

Nanoparticles for Targeted Drug Delivery to Cancer Stem Cells: A Review of Recent Advances

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Department of Biomedical Engineering, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039, Turkey
2
ERNAM—Nanotechnology Research and Application Center, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039, Turkey
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Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran 14115, Iran
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Solid Tumor Research Center, Research Institute for Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia 57147, Iran
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Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ugutz Unzueta
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(7), 1755; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11071755
Received: 21 May 2021 / Revised: 29 June 2021 / Accepted: 2 July 2021 / Published: 5 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomedicines for Oncotherapy)
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of cells that can initiate, self-renew, and sustain tumor growth. CSCs are responsible for tumor metastasis, recurrence, and drug resistance in cancer therapy. CSCs reside within a niche maintained by multiple unique factors in the microenvironment. These factors include hypoxia, excessive levels of angiogenesis, a change of mitochondrial activity from aerobic aspiration to aerobic glycolysis, an upregulated expression of CSC biomarkers and stem cell signaling, and an elevated synthesis of the cytochromes P450 family of enzymes responsible for drug clearance. Antibodies and ligands targeting the unique factors that maintain the niche are utilized for the delivery of anticancer therapeutics to CSCs. In this regard, nanomaterials, specifically nanoparticles (NPs), are extremely useful as carriers for the delivery of anticancer agents to CSCs. This review covers the biology of CSCs and advances in the design and synthesis of NPs as a carrier in targeting cancer drugs to the CSC subpopulation of cancer cells. This review includes the development of synthetic and natural polymeric NPs, lipid NPs, inorganic NPs, self-assembling protein NPs, antibody-drug conjugates, and extracellular nanovesicles for CSC targeting. View Full-Text
Keywords: targeted cancer therapy; cancer stem cells; nanoparticles; polymers; nanocarriers; self-assembling proteins; nanovesicles; dual-targeted drug delivery targeted cancer therapy; cancer stem cells; nanoparticles; polymers; nanocarriers; self-assembling proteins; nanovesicles; dual-targeted drug delivery
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ertas, Y.N.; Abedi Dorcheh, K.; Akbari, A.; Jabbari, E. Nanoparticles for Targeted Drug Delivery to Cancer Stem Cells: A Review of Recent Advances. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 1755. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11071755

AMA Style

Ertas YN, Abedi Dorcheh K, Akbari A, Jabbari E. Nanoparticles for Targeted Drug Delivery to Cancer Stem Cells: A Review of Recent Advances. Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(7):1755. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11071755

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ertas, Yavuz N., Keyvan Abedi Dorcheh, Ali Akbari, and Esmaiel Jabbari. 2021. "Nanoparticles for Targeted Drug Delivery to Cancer Stem Cells: A Review of Recent Advances" Nanomaterials 11, no. 7: 1755. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11071755

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