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Article

Effects of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Physiological and Anatomical Indices in Spring Barley Tissues

1
Academy of Biology and Biotechnology, Southern Federal University, 344090 Rostov-on-Don, Russia
2
The Smart Materials Research Institute, Southern Federal University, 344090 Rostov-on-Don, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu and Oana Gherasim
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(7), 1722; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11071722
Received: 19 May 2021 / Revised: 26 June 2021 / Accepted: 27 June 2021 / Published: 30 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Applications)
The aim of the present work was to investigate the toxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs, particle size < 50 nm) on the physiological and anatomical indices of spring barley (Hordeum sativum L.). The results show that ZnO NPs inhibited H. sativum growth by affecting the chlorophyll fluorescence emissions and causing deformations of the stomatal and trichome morphology, alterations to the cellular organizations, including irregularities of the chloroplasts, and disruptions to the grana and thylakoid organizations. There was a lower number of chloroplasts per cell observed in the H. sativum leaf cells treated with ZnO NPs as compared to the non-treated plants. Cytomorphometric quantification revealed that ZnO NPs decreased the size of the chloroplast by 1.5 and 4 times in 300 and 2000 mg/L ZnO NP-treated plants, respectively. The elemental analysis showed higher Zn accumulation in the treated leaf tissues (3.8 and 10.18-fold with 300 and 2000 mg/L ZnO NPs, respectively) than the untreated. High contents of Zn were observed in several spots in ZnO NP-treated leaf tissues using X-ray fluorescence. Deviations in the anatomical indices were significantly correlated with physiological observations. The accumulation of Zn content in plant tissues that originated from ZnO NPs was shown to cause damage to the structural organization of the photosynthetic apparatus and reduced the photosynthetic activities. View Full-Text
Keywords: cellular uptake; cytotoxicity; stomata; trichomes; chlorophyll fluorescence; elemental analysis cellular uptake; cytotoxicity; stomata; trichomes; chlorophyll fluorescence; elemental analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rajput, V.D.; Minkina, T.; Fedorenko, A.; Chernikova, N.; Hassan, T.; Mandzhieva, S.; Sushkova, S.; Lysenko, V.; Soldatov, M.A.; Burachevskaya, M. Effects of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Physiological and Anatomical Indices in Spring Barley Tissues. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 1722. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11071722

AMA Style

Rajput VD, Minkina T, Fedorenko A, Chernikova N, Hassan T, Mandzhieva S, Sushkova S, Lysenko V, Soldatov MA, Burachevskaya M. Effects of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Physiological and Anatomical Indices in Spring Barley Tissues. Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(7):1722. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11071722

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rajput, Vishnu D., Tatiana Minkina, Aleksei Fedorenko, Natalia Chernikova, Tara Hassan, Saglara Mandzhieva, Svetlana Sushkova, Vladimir Lysenko, Mikhail A. Soldatov, and Marina Burachevskaya. 2021. "Effects of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Physiological and Anatomical Indices in Spring Barley Tissues" Nanomaterials 11, no. 7: 1722. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11071722

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