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Review

Application of Nanotechnology for Sensitive Detection of Low-Abundance Single-Nucleotide Variations in Genomic DNA: A Review

1
Faculty of Pharmacy, Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology and Regulatory Affairs, University of Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Hungary
2
Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Resistant Tuberculosis Institute, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan 98167-43463, Iran
3
Department of Chemistry, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman 76169-14111, Iran
4
Center of Experimental Orthopaedics, Saarland University Medical Center, D-66421 Homburg/Saar, Germany
5
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zabol, Zabol 538-98615, Iran
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(6), 1384; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11061384
Received: 27 April 2021 / Revised: 20 May 2021 / Accepted: 21 May 2021 / Published: 24 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Application of DNA Nanotechnology)
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the simplest and most common type of DNA variations in the human genome. This class of attractive genetic markers, along with point mutations, have been associated with the risk of developing a wide range of diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Several existing methods to detect SNPs and mutations in body fluids have faced limitations. Therefore, there is a need to focus on developing noninvasive future polymerase chain reaction (PCR)–free tools to detect low-abundant SNPs in such specimens. The detection of small concentrations of SNPs in the presence of a large background of wild-type genes is the biggest hurdle. Hence, the screening and detection of SNPs need efficient and straightforward strategies. Suitable amplification methods are being explored to avoid high-throughput settings and laborious efforts. Therefore, currently, DNA sensing methods are being explored for the ultrasensitive detection of SNPs based on the concept of nanotechnology. Owing to their small size and improved surface area, nanomaterials hold the extensive capacity to be used as biosensors in the genotyping and highly sensitive recognition of single-base mismatch in the presence of incomparable wild-type DNA fragments. Different nanomaterials have been combined with imaging and sensing techniques and amplification methods to facilitate the less time-consuming and easy detection of SNPs in different diseases. This review aims to highlight some of the most recent findings on the aspects of nanotechnology-based SNP sensing methods used for the specific and ultrasensitive detection of low-concentration SNPs and rare mutations. View Full-Text
Keywords: SNP; nanotechnology; genomic DNA; detection SNP; nanotechnology; genomic DNA; detection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mukhtar, M.; Sargazi, S.; Barani, M.; Madry, H.; Rahdar, A.; Cucchiarini, M. Application of Nanotechnology for Sensitive Detection of Low-Abundance Single-Nucleotide Variations in Genomic DNA: A Review. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 1384. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11061384

AMA Style

Mukhtar M, Sargazi S, Barani M, Madry H, Rahdar A, Cucchiarini M. Application of Nanotechnology for Sensitive Detection of Low-Abundance Single-Nucleotide Variations in Genomic DNA: A Review. Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(6):1384. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11061384

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mukhtar, Mahwash, Saman Sargazi, Mahmood Barani, Henning Madry, Abbas Rahdar, and Magali Cucchiarini. 2021. "Application of Nanotechnology for Sensitive Detection of Low-Abundance Single-Nucleotide Variations in Genomic DNA: A Review" Nanomaterials 11, no. 6: 1384. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11061384

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