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Article

Profiling of Sub-Lethal in Vitro Effects of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Reveals Changes in Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors

1
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
2
IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, 20089 Rozzano, Milan, Italy
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Center for Research in Molecular Medicine & Chronic Diseases, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
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Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden
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Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, 10115 Berlin, Germany
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Department of Biology, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China
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Department of Computer Science and Mathematics, Freie Universität Berlin, 14195 Berlin, Germany
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Statistics and Toxicology Section, Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh EH14 4AP, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Werner Blau and Angelina Angelova
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(4), 883; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11040883
Received: 11 February 2021 / Revised: 19 March 2021 / Accepted: 26 March 2021 / Published: 30 March 2021
Engineered nanomaterials are potentially very useful for a variety of applications, but studies are needed to ascertain whether these materials pose a risk to human health. Here, we studied three benchmark nanomaterials (Ag nanoparticles, TiO2 nanoparticles, and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, MWCNTs) procured from the nanomaterial repository at the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. Having established a sub-lethal concentration of these materials using two human cell lines representative of the immune system and the lungs, respectively, we performed RNA sequencing of the macrophage-like cell line after exposure for 6, 12, and 24 h. Downstream analysis of the transcriptomics data revealed significant effects on chemokine signaling pathways. CCR2 was identified as the most significantly upregulated gene in MWCNT-exposed cells. Using multiplex assays to evaluate cytokine and chemokine secretion, we could show significant effects of MWCNTs on several chemokines, including CCL2, a ligand of CCR2. The results demonstrate the importance of evaluating sub-lethal concentrations of nanomaterials in relevant target cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: multi-walled carbon nanotubes; nanoparticles; chemokines; macrophages; transcriptomics multi-walled carbon nanotubes; nanoparticles; chemokines; macrophages; transcriptomics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Keshavan, S.; Andón, F.T.; Gallud, A.; Chen, W.; Reinert, K.; Tran, L.; Fadeel, B. Profiling of Sub-Lethal in Vitro Effects of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Reveals Changes in Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 883. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11040883

AMA Style

Keshavan S, Andón FT, Gallud A, Chen W, Reinert K, Tran L, Fadeel B. Profiling of Sub-Lethal in Vitro Effects of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Reveals Changes in Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors. Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(4):883. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11040883

Chicago/Turabian Style

Keshavan, Sandeep, Fernando Torres Andón, Audrey Gallud, Wei Chen, Knut Reinert, Lang Tran, and Bengt Fadeel. 2021. "Profiling of Sub-Lethal in Vitro Effects of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Reveals Changes in Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors" Nanomaterials 11, no. 4: 883. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11040883

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