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Review

VOCs Sensing by Metal Oxides, Conductive Polymers, and Carbon-Based Materials

1
Institute of Microelectronics of Barcelona (IMB-CNM, CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain
2
Department of Electronic Engineering, Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB), Campus UAB, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain
3
CEITEC—Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, 61200 Brno, Czech Republic
4
Silicon Austria Labs, Microsystem Technologies, High Tech Campus Villach, Europastraβe 12, A-9524 Villach, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giuseppe Cappelletti
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(2), 552; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11020552
Received: 23 December 2020 / Revised: 31 January 2021 / Accepted: 7 February 2021 / Published: 22 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Gas Sensors Applications)
This review summarizes the recent research efforts and developments in nanomaterials for sensing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The discussion focuses on key materials such as metal oxides (e.g., ZnO, SnO2, TiO2 WO3), conductive polymers (e.g., polypyrrole, polythiophene, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)), and carbon-based materials (e.g., graphene, graphene oxide, carbon nanotubes), and their mutual combination due to their representativeness in VOCs sensing. Moreover, it delves into the main characteristics and tuning of these materials to achieve enhanced functionality (sensitivity, selectivity, speed of response, and stability). The usual synthesis methods and their advantages towards their integration with microsystems for practical applications are also remarked on. The literature survey shows the most successful systems include structured morphologies, particularly hierarchical structures at the nanometric scale, with intentionally introduced tunable “decorative impurities” or well-defined interfaces forming bilayer structures. These groups of modified or functionalized structures, in which metal oxides are still the main protagonists either as host or guest elements, have proved improvements in VOCs sensing. The work also identifies the need to explore new hybrid material combinations, as well as the convenience of incorporating other transducing principles further than resistive that allow the exploitation of mixed output concepts (e.g., electric, optic, mechanic). View Full-Text
Keywords: volatile organic compounds; gas sensors; nanomaterials volatile organic compounds; gas sensors; nanomaterials
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tomić, M.; Šetka, M.; Vojkůvka, L.; Vallejos, S. VOCs Sensing by Metal Oxides, Conductive Polymers, and Carbon-Based Materials. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 552. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11020552

AMA Style

Tomić M, Šetka M, Vojkůvka L, Vallejos S. VOCs Sensing by Metal Oxides, Conductive Polymers, and Carbon-Based Materials. Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(2):552. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11020552

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tomić, Milena, Milena Šetka, Lukaš Vojkůvka, and Stella Vallejos. 2021. "VOCs Sensing by Metal Oxides, Conductive Polymers, and Carbon-Based Materials" Nanomaterials 11, no. 2: 552. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11020552

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