Next Article in Journal
Sintering Process Optimization for 3YSZ Ceramic 3D-Printed Objects Manufactured by Stereolithography
Next Article in Special Issue
Effect of Na- and Organo-Modified Montmorillonite/Essential Oil Nanohybrids on the Kinetics of the In Situ Radical Polymerization of Styrene
Previous Article in Journal
Niobium Modification of Au/CeO2 for Enhanced Catalytic Performance over Benzene Combustion
Previous Article in Special Issue
Combined Effect of Active Packaging of Polyethylene Filled with a Nano-Carrier of Salicylate and Modified Atmosphere to Improve the Shelf Life of Fresh Blueberries
Article

Synthesis of D-Limonene Loaded Polymeric Nanoparticles with Enhanced Antimicrobial Properties for Potential Application in Food Packaging

1
Laboratory of Polymer and Dyes Chemistry and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
2
Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
3
Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Technology, School of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(1), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010191
Received: 18 December 2020 / Revised: 10 January 2021 / Accepted: 11 January 2021 / Published: 13 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Food Packaging)
Mini-emulsion polymerization was applied for the synthesis of cross-linked polymeric nanoparticles comprised of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and Triethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) copolymers, used as matrix-carriers for hosting D-limonene. D-limonene was selected as a model essential oil, well known for its pleasant odor and its enhanced antimicrobial properties. The synthesized particles were assessed for their morphology and geometric characteristics by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), which revealed the formation of particles with mean diameters at the nanoscale (D[3,2] = 0.135 μm), with a spherical shape, while the dried particles formed larger clusters of several microns (D[3,2] = 80.69 μm). The percentage of the loaded D-limonene was quantified by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), complemented by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis coupled with a pyrolysis unit (Py/GC-MS). The results showed that the volatiles emitted by the nanoparticles were composed mainly of D-limonene (10% w/w of dry particles). Particles subjected to higher temperatures tended to decompose. The mechanism that governs the release of D-limonene from the as-synthesized particles was studied by fitting mathematical models to the release data obtained by isothermal TGA analysis of the dry particles subjected to accelerated conditions. The analysis revealed a two-stage release of the volatiles, one governed by D-limonene release and the other governed by TEGDMA release. Finally, the antimicrobial potency of the D-limonene-loaded particles was demonstrated, indicating the successful synthesis of polymeric nanoparticles loaded with D-limonene, owing to enhanced antimicrobial properties. The overall performance of these nanoparticles renders them a promising candidate material for the formation of self-sterilized surfaces with enhanced antimicrobial activity and potential application in food packaging. View Full-Text
Keywords: mini-emulsion polymerization; D-limonene; essential oils; antimicrobial properties; nanoparticles; cross-linking; volatile release mini-emulsion polymerization; D-limonene; essential oils; antimicrobial properties; nanoparticles; cross-linking; volatile release
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Andriotis, E.G.; Papi, R.M.; Paraskevopoulou, A.; Achilias, D.S. Synthesis of D-Limonene Loaded Polymeric Nanoparticles with Enhanced Antimicrobial Properties for Potential Application in Food Packaging. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 191. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010191

AMA Style

Andriotis EG, Papi RM, Paraskevopoulou A, Achilias DS. Synthesis of D-Limonene Loaded Polymeric Nanoparticles with Enhanced Antimicrobial Properties for Potential Application in Food Packaging. Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(1):191. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010191

Chicago/Turabian Style

Andriotis, Eleftherios G., Rigini M. Papi, Adamantini Paraskevopoulou, and Dimitris S. Achilias 2021. "Synthesis of D-Limonene Loaded Polymeric Nanoparticles with Enhanced Antimicrobial Properties for Potential Application in Food Packaging" Nanomaterials 11, no. 1: 191. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010191

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop