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Review

Therapeutic Manipulation of Macrophages Using Nanotechnological Approaches for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis

1
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Via Rita Levi Montalcini 4, 20090 Pieve Emanuele, Milan, Italy
2
IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Via A. Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan, Italy
3
Center for Research in Molecular Medicine & Chronic Diseases (CIMUS), Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Vida, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to the present review.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(8), 1562; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10081562
Received: 24 June 2020 / Revised: 31 July 2020 / Accepted: 7 August 2020 / Published: 9 August 2020
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint pathology causing severe pain and disability. Macrophages play a central role in the pathogenesis of OA. In the joint microenvironment, macrophages with an M1-like pro-inflammatory phenotype induce chronic inflammation and joint destruction, and they have been correlated with the development and progression of the disease, while the M2-like anti-inflammatory macrophages support the recovery of the disease, promoting tissue repair and the resolution of inflammation. Nowadays, the treatment of OA in the clinic relies on systemic and/or intra-articular administration of anti-inflammatory and pain relief drugs, as well as surgical interventions for the severe cases (i.e., meniscectomy). The disadvantages of the pharmacological therapy are related to the chronic nature of the disease, requiring prolonged treatments, and to the particular location of the pathology in joint tissues, which are separated anatomical compartments with difficult access for the drugs. To overcome these challenges, nanotechnological approaches have been investigated to improve the delivery of drugs toward macrophages into the diseased joint. This strategy may offer advantages by reducing off-target toxicities and improving long-term therapeutic efficacy. In this review, we describe the nanomaterial-based approaches designed so far to directly or indirectly manipulate macrophages for the treatment of osteoarthritis. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanomaterial; macrophage; nanoparticle; drug delivery; immune system; anti-inflammatory; innate immunity; osteoarthritis nanomaterial; macrophage; nanoparticle; drug delivery; immune system; anti-inflammatory; innate immunity; osteoarthritis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ummarino, A.; Gambaro, F.M.; Kon, E.; Torres Andón, F. Therapeutic Manipulation of Macrophages Using Nanotechnological Approaches for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 1562. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10081562

AMA Style

Ummarino A, Gambaro FM, Kon E, Torres Andón F. Therapeutic Manipulation of Macrophages Using Nanotechnological Approaches for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis. Nanomaterials. 2020; 10(8):1562. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10081562

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ummarino, Aldo, Francesco M. Gambaro, Elizaveta Kon, and Fernando Torres Andón. 2020. "Therapeutic Manipulation of Macrophages Using Nanotechnological Approaches for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis" Nanomaterials 10, no. 8: 1562. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10081562

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