Next Article in Journal
Erratum: Canle, M., et al. Improved Photocatalyzed Degradation of Phenol, as a Model Pollutant, over Metal-Impregnated Nanosized TiO2. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 996
Next Article in Special Issue
Therapeutic Manipulation of Macrophages Using Nanotechnological Approaches for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis
Previous Article in Journal
Synthesis and Stabilization of Support-Free Mesoporous Gold Nanoparticles
Open AccessArticle

Overcoming the Inflammatory Stage of Non-Healing Wounds: In Vitro Mechanism of Action of Negatively Charged Microspheres (NCMs)

1
NanoBioCel Group, Laboratory of Pharmaceutics, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), School of Pharmacy, Paseo de la Universidad 7, 01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain
2
Biomedical Research Networking Center in Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), 01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain
3
BioKeralty Research Institute AIE, Albert Einstein, 25-E3, 01510 Miñano, Spain
4
Praxis Pharmaceutical, San Fernando de Henares Business Park, Avenida de Castilla 2, Dublin Building 2nd floor, San Fernando de Henares, 28830 Madrid, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(6), 1108; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10061108
Received: 9 May 2020 / Revised: 23 May 2020 / Accepted: 1 June 2020 / Published: 3 June 2020
Negatively charged microspheres (NCMs) represent a new therapeutic approach for wound healing since recent clinical trials have shown NCM efficacy in the recovery of hard-to-heal wounds that tend to stay in the inflammatory phase, unlocking the healing process. The aim of this study was to elucidate the NCM mechanism of action. NCMs were extracted from a commercial microsphere formulation (PolyHeal® Micro) and cytotoxicity, attachment, proliferation and viability assays were performed in keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts, while macrophages were used for the phagocytosis and polarization assays. We demonstrated that cells tend to attach to the microsphere surface, and that NCMs are biocompatible and promote cell proliferation at specific concentrations (50 and 10 NCM/cell) by a minimum of 3 fold compared to the control group. Furthermore, NCM internalization by macrophages seemed to drive these cells to a noninflammatory condition, as demonstrated by the over-expression of CD206 and the under-expression of CD64, M2 and M1 markers, respectively. NCMs are an effective approach for reverting the chronic inflammatory state of stagnant wounds (such as diabetic wounds) and thus for improving wound healing. View Full-Text
Keywords: chronic wound; device; foot ulcer; inflammation; wound healing; macrophage chronic wound; device; foot ulcer; inflammation; wound healing; macrophage
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Santos-Vizcaino, E.; Salvador, A.; Vairo, C.; Igartua, M.; Hernandez, R.M.; Correa, L.; Villullas, S.; Gainza, G. Overcoming the Inflammatory Stage of Non-Healing Wounds: In Vitro Mechanism of Action of Negatively Charged Microspheres (NCMs). Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 1108.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop