Next Article in Journal
Ligand-Length Modification in CsPbBr3 Perovskite Nanocrystals and Bilayers with PbS Quantum Dots for Improved Photodetection Performance
Previous Article in Journal
Synthesis and Electrochemical Study of Three-Dimensional Graphene-Based Nanomaterials for Energy Applications
Previous Article in Special Issue
Insights into the Effects of Pore Size Distribution on the Flowing Behavior of Carbonate Rocks: Linking a Nano-Based Enhanced Oil Recovery Method to Rock Typing
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

A Core Flood and Microfluidics Investigation of Nanocellulose as a Chemical Additive to Water Flooding for EOR

1
PoreLab Center of Excellence, Department of Geoscience and Petroleum, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), N-7491 Trondheim, Norway
2
RISE PFI, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway
3
Department of Chemical Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), N-7491 Trondheim, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(7), 1296; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10071296
Received: 6 June 2020 / Revised: 29 June 2020 / Accepted: 30 June 2020 / Published: 1 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Nanoparticles for Oil Recovery)
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (T-CNFs) were tested as enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents through core floods and microfluidic experiments. Both particles were mixed with low salinity water (LSW). The core floods were grouped into three parts based on the research objectives. In Part 1, secondary core flood using CNCs was compared to regular water flooding at fixed conditions, by reusing the same core plug to maintain the same pore structure. CNCs produced 5.8% of original oil in place (OOIP) more oil than LSW. For Part 2, the effect of injection scheme, temperature, and rock wettability was investigated using CNCs. The same trend was observed for the secondary floods, with CNCs performing better than their parallel experiment using LSW. Furthermore, the particles seemed to perform better under mixed-wet conditions. Additional oil (2.9–15.7% of OOIP) was produced when CNCs were injected as a tertiary EOR agent, with more incremental oil produced at high temperature. In the final part, the effect of particle type was studied. T-CNFs produced significantly more oil compared to CNCs. However, the injection of T-CNF particles resulted in a steep increase in pressure, which never stabilized. Furthermore, a filter cake was observed at the core face after the experiment was completed. Microfluidic experiments showed that both T-CNF and CNC nanofluids led to a better sweep efficiency compared to low salinity water flooding. T-CNF particles showed the ability to enhance the oil recovery by breaking up events and reducing the trapping efficiency of the porous medium. A higher flow rate resulted in lower oil recovery factors and higher remaining oil connectivity. Contact angle and interfacial tension measurements were conducted to understand the oil recovery mechanisms. CNCs altered the interfacial tension the most, while T-CNFs had the largest effect on the contact angle. However, the changes were not significant enough for them to be considered primary EOR mechanisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: enhanced oil recovery; chemical flooding; nanocellulose; cellulose nanocrystals; TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils; microfluidics enhanced oil recovery; chemical flooding; nanocellulose; cellulose nanocrystals; TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils; microfluidics
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Aadland, R.C.; Akarri, S.; Heggset, E.B.; Syverud, K.; Torsæter, O. A Core Flood and Microfluidics Investigation of Nanocellulose as a Chemical Additive to Water Flooding for EOR. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 1296.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop