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Open AccessArticle

A Nano-Rattle SnO2@carbon Composite Anode Material for High-Energy Li-ion Batteries by Melt Diffusion Impregnation

1
Department of Chemistry, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Musée 9, CH-1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
2
College of Engineering and Architecture of Fribourg, University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland, Boulevard de Pérolles 80, CH-1705 Fribourg, Switzerland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(4), 804; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10040804
Received: 2 March 2020 / Revised: 13 April 2020 / Accepted: 15 April 2020 / Published: 22 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Energy and Catalysis)
The huge volume expansion in Sn-based alloy anode materials (up to 360%) leads to a dramatic mechanical stress and breaking of particles, resulting in the loss of conductivity and thereby capacity fading. To overcome this issue, SnO2@C nano-rattle composites based on <10 nm SnO2 nanoparticles in and on porous amorphous carbon spheres were synthesized using a silica template and tin melting diffusion method. Such SnO2@C nano-rattle composite electrodes provided two electrochemical processes: a partially reversible process of the SnO2 reduction to metallic Sn at 0.8 V vs. Li+/Li and a reversible process of alloying/dealloying of LixSny at 0.5 V vs. Li+/Li. Good performance could be achieved by controlling the particle sizes of SnO2 and carbon, the pore size of carbon, and the distribution of SnO2 nanoparticles on the carbon shells. Finally, the areal capacity of SnO2@C prepared by the melt diffusion process was increased due to the higher loading of SnO2 nanoparticles into the hollow carbon spheres, as compared with Sn impregnation by a reducing agent. View Full-Text
Keywords: SnO2@C; nano-rattles; anode; Li-ion batteries SnO2@C; nano-rattles; anode; Li-ion batteries
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MDPI and ACS Style

Maharajan, S.; Kwon, N.H.; Brodard, P.; Fromm, K.M. A Nano-Rattle SnO2@carbon Composite Anode Material for High-Energy Li-ion Batteries by Melt Diffusion Impregnation. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 804.

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