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Open AccessReview

Stealth Coating of Nanoparticles in Drug-Delivery Systems

1
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
2
Nanotechnology and Catalysis Research Centre, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
3
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
4
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
5
Laboratory of Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(4), 787; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10040787
Received: 19 February 2020 / Revised: 6 March 2020 / Accepted: 7 March 2020 / Published: 20 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Biology and Medicines)
Nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as a powerful drug-delivery tool for cancer therapies to enhance the specificity of drug actions, while reducing the systemic side effects. Nonetheless, NPs interact massively with the surrounding physiological environments including plasma proteins upon administration into the bloodstream. Consequently, they are rapidly cleared from the blood circulation by the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) or complement system, resulting in a premature elimination that will cause the drug release at off-target sites. By grafting a stealth coating layer onto the surface of NPs, the blood circulation half-life of nanomaterials can be improved by escaping the recognition and clearance of the immune system. This review focuses on the basic concept underlying the stealth behavior of NPs by polymer coating, whereby the fundamental surface coating characteristics such as molecular weight, surface chain density as well as conformations of polymer chains are of utmost importance for efficient protection of NPs. In addition, the most commonly used stealth polymers such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly(2-oxazoline) (POx), and poly(zwitterions) in developing long-circulating NPs for drug delivery are also thoroughly discussed. The biomimetic strategies, including the cell-membrane camouflaging technique and CD47 functionalization for the development of stealth nano-delivery systems, are highlighted in this review as well. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticles; polymer; stealth; drug delivery; opsonization; phagocytosis nanoparticles; polymer; stealth; drug delivery; opsonization; phagocytosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fam, S.Y.; Chee, C.F.; Yong, C.Y.; Ho, K.L.; Mariatulqabtiah, A.R.; Tan, W.S. Stealth Coating of Nanoparticles in Drug-Delivery Systems. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 787.

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