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Open AccessReview

Emerging Nano- and Micro-Technologies Used in the Treatment of Type-1 Diabetes

1
Interventional Regenerative Medicine and Imaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
2
Laboratory of Nanotechnology for Precision Medicine, Fondazione Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, 16163 Genoa, Italy
3
Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine & Medical Specialist (DIMI), University of Genoa, 16163 Genoa, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Avnesh S Thakor and Paolo Decuzzi are shearing the senior authorship of this work.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(4), 789; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10040789
Received: 14 March 2020 / Revised: 7 April 2020 / Accepted: 14 April 2020 / Published: 20 April 2020
Type-1 diabetes is characterized by high blood glucose levels due to a failure of insulin secretion from beta cells within pancreatic islets. Current treatment strategies consist of multiple, daily injections of insulin or transplantation of either the whole pancreas or isolated pancreatic islets. While there are different forms of insulin with tunable pharmacokinetics (fast, intermediate, and long-acting), improper dosing continues to be a major limitation often leading to complications resulting from hyper- or hypo-glycemia. Glucose-responsive insulin delivery systems, consisting of a glucose sensor connected to an insulin infusion pump, have improved dosing but they still suffer from inaccurate feedback, biofouling and poor patient compliance. Islet transplantation is a promising strategy but requires multiple donors per patient and post-transplantation islet survival is impaired by inflammation and suboptimal revascularization. This review discusses how nano- and micro-technologies, as well as tissue engineering approaches, can overcome many of these challenges and help contribute to an artificial pancreas-like system. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetes; glucose sensor; nanoparticles; microparticles; tissue engineering diabetes; glucose sensor; nanoparticles; microparticles; tissue engineering
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MDPI and ACS Style

Primavera, R.; Kevadiya, B.D.; Swaminathan, G.; Wilson, R.J.; De Pascale, A.; Decuzzi, P.; Thakor, A.S. Emerging Nano- and Micro-Technologies Used in the Treatment of Type-1 Diabetes. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 789.

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