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Open AccessArticle

Porous Carbon Materials Obtained by the Hydrothermal Carbonization of Orange Juice

1
Surface Nanoscience Group, Department of Physics, University of Calabria, I-87036 Rende, Cosenza, Italy
2
UNICARIBE Research Center, University of Calabria, I-87036 Rende, Cosenza, Italy
3
INFN, Sezione LNF, Gruppo Collegato di Cosenza, Via P. Bucci, I-87036 Rende, Cosenza, Italy
4
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technologies, University of Calabria, I-87036 Rende, Cosenza, Italy
5
Laboratorio de Nanotecnología, Área de Ciencias Básicas y Ambientales, Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo, Av. Los Próceres, Santo Domingo 10602, República Dominicana
6
Escuela de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Pontificia Universidad Católica Madre y Maestra, Autopista Duarte Km 1 1/2, Santiago de los Caballeros 51000, República Dominicana
7
CompNano, School of Physical Sciences and Nanotechnology, Yachay Tech University, Urcuquí EC-100119, Ecuador
8
Research Institute on Membrane Technology (ITM-CNR), University of Calabria, I-87036 Rende, Cosenza, Italy
9
Department of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, University of Calabria, I-87036 Rende, Cosenza, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(4), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10040655
Received: 17 March 2020 / Revised: 23 March 2020 / Accepted: 26 March 2020 / Published: 1 April 2020
Porous carbon materials are currently subjected to strong research efforts mainly due to their excellent performances in energy storage devices. A sustainable process to obtain them is hydrothermal carbonization (HTC), in which the decomposition of biomass precursors generates solid products called hydrochars, together with liquid and gaseous products. Hydrochars have a high C content and are rich with oxygen-containing functional groups, which is important for subsequent activation. Orange pomace and orange peels are considered wastes and then have been investigated as possible feedstocks for hydrochars production. On the contrary, orange juice was treated by HTC only to obtain carbon quantum dots. In the present study, pure orange juice was hydrothermally carbonized and the resulting hydrochar was filtered and washed, and graphitized/activated by KOH in nitrogen atmosphere at 800 °C. The resulting material was studied by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and nitrogen sorption isotherms. We found porous microspheres with some degree of graphitization and high nitrogen content, a specific surface of 1725 m2/g, and a pore size distribution that make them good candidates for supercapacitor electrodes. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrothermal carbonization (HTC); carbon microspheres; KOH activation hydrothermal carbonization (HTC); carbon microspheres; KOH activation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Veltri, F.; Alessandro, F.; Scarcello, A.; Beneduci, A.; Arias Polanco, M.; Cid Perez, D.; Vacacela Gomez, C.; Tavolaro, A.; Giordano, G.; Caputi, L.S. Porous Carbon Materials Obtained by the Hydrothermal Carbonization of Orange Juice. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 655. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10040655

AMA Style

Veltri F, Alessandro F, Scarcello A, Beneduci A, Arias Polanco M, Cid Perez D, Vacacela Gomez C, Tavolaro A, Giordano G, Caputi LS. Porous Carbon Materials Obtained by the Hydrothermal Carbonization of Orange Juice. Nanomaterials. 2020; 10(4):655. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10040655

Chicago/Turabian Style

Veltri, Francesco; Alessandro, Francesca; Scarcello, Andrea; Beneduci, Amerigo; Arias Polanco, Melvin; Cid Perez, Denia; Vacacela Gomez, Cristian; Tavolaro, Adalgisa; Giordano, Girolamo; Caputi, Lorenzo S. 2020. "Porous Carbon Materials Obtained by the Hydrothermal Carbonization of Orange Juice" Nanomaterials 10, no. 4: 655. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10040655

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