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Open AccessArticle

Formation of Thin NiGe Films by Magnetron Sputtering and Flash Lamp Annealing

1
Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden, Germany
2
Faculty of Physics, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany
3
Institute of Experimental Physics, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Leipziger Str. 23, 09599 Freiberg, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(4), 648; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10040648
Received: 6 March 2020 / Revised: 27 March 2020 / Accepted: 27 March 2020 / Published: 31 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials Based on IV-Group Semiconductors)
The nickel monogermanide (NiGe) phase is known for its electrical properties such as low ohmic and low contact resistance in group-IV-based electronics. In this work, thin films of nickel germanides (Ni–Ge) were formed by magnetron sputtering followed by flash lamp annealing (FLA). The formation of NiGe was investigated on three types of substrates: on amorphous (a-Ge) as well as polycrystalline Ge (poly-Ge) and on monocrystalline (100)-Ge (c-Ge) wafers. Substrate and NiGe structure characterization was performed by Raman, TEM, and XRD analyses. Hall Effect and four-point-probe measurements were used to characterize the films electrically. NiGe layers were successfully formed on different Ge substrates using 3-ms FLA. Electrical as well as XRD and TEM measurements are revealing the formation of Ni-rich hexagonal and cubic phases at lower temperatures accompanied by the formation of the low-resistivity orthorhombic NiGe phase. At higher annealing temperatures, Ni-rich phases are transforming into NiGe, as long as the supply of Ge is ensured. NiGe layer formation on a-Ge is accompanied by metal-induced crystallization and its elevated electrical resistivity compared with that of poly-Ge and c-Ge substrates. Specific resistivities for 30 nm Ni on Ge were determined to be 13.5 μΩ·cm for poly-Ge, 14.6 μΩ·cm for c-Ge, and 20.1 μΩ·cm for a-Ge. View Full-Text
Keywords: germanium; germanides; nickel; thin films; sputtering; flash lamp annealing germanium; germanides; nickel; thin films; sputtering; flash lamp annealing
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Begeza, V.; Mehner, E.; Stöcker, H.; Xie, Y.; García, A.; Hübner, R.; Erb, D.; Zhou, S.; Rebohle, L. Formation of Thin NiGe Films by Magnetron Sputtering and Flash Lamp Annealing. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 648.

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