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Open AccessArticle

Interaction between Amorphous Zirconia Nanoparticles and Graphite: Electrochemical Applications for Gallic Acid Sensing Using Carbon Paste Electrodes in Wine

1
School of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Robert Gordon University, Garthdee Road, Aberdeen AB10 7GJ, UK
2
School of Engineering, the Robert Gordon University, Garthdee Road, Aberdeen AB10 7GJ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 537; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030537
Received: 31 January 2020 / Revised: 2 March 2020 / Accepted: 10 March 2020 / Published: 17 March 2020
Amorphous zirconium oxide nanoparticles (ZrO2) have been used for the first time, to modify carbon paste electrode (CPE) and used as a sensor for the electrochemical determination of gallic acid (GA). The voltammetric results of the ZrO2 nanoparticles-modified CPE showed efficient electrochemical oxidation of gallic acid, with a significantly enhanced peak current from 261 µA ± 3 to about 451 µA ± 1. The modified surface of the electrode and the synthesised zirconia nanoparticles were characterised by scanning electrode microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDXA), X-ray powdered diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Meanwhile, the electrochemical behaviour of GA on the surface of the modified electrode was studied using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), showing a sensitivity of the electrode for GA determination, within a concentration range of 1 × 10−6 mol L−1 to 1 × 10−3 mol L−1 with a correlation coefficient of R2 of 0.9945 and a limit of detection of 1.24 × 10−7 mol L−1 (S/N = 3). The proposed ZrO2 nanoparticles modified CPE was successfully used for the determination of GA in red and white wine, with concentrations of 0.103 mmol L−1 and 0.049 mmol L−1 respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: amorphous materials; zirconium oxide nanoparticles; carbon paste electrode; phenolic acid; gallic acid; electrochemistry; cyclic voltammetry; differential pulse voltammetry amorphous materials; zirconium oxide nanoparticles; carbon paste electrode; phenolic acid; gallic acid; electrochemistry; cyclic voltammetry; differential pulse voltammetry
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chikere, C.O.; Faisal, N.H.; Kong-Thoo-Lin, P.; Fernandez, C. Interaction between Amorphous Zirconia Nanoparticles and Graphite: Electrochemical Applications for Gallic Acid Sensing Using Carbon Paste Electrodes in Wine. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 537. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030537

AMA Style

Chikere CO, Faisal NH, Kong-Thoo-Lin P, Fernandez C. Interaction between Amorphous Zirconia Nanoparticles and Graphite: Electrochemical Applications for Gallic Acid Sensing Using Carbon Paste Electrodes in Wine. Nanomaterials. 2020; 10(3):537. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030537

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chikere, Chrys. O.; Faisal, Nadimul H.; Kong-Thoo-Lin, Paul; Fernandez, Carlos. 2020. "Interaction between Amorphous Zirconia Nanoparticles and Graphite: Electrochemical Applications for Gallic Acid Sensing Using Carbon Paste Electrodes in Wine" Nanomaterials 10, no. 3: 537. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030537

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