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Open AccessArticle

Manganese and Graphene Included Titanium Dioxide Composite Nanowires: Fabrication, Characterization and Enhanced Photocatalytic Activities

1
Daegyeong Regional Infrastructure Technology Development Center, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
2
Faculty of Science, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030456
Received: 30 January 2020 / Revised: 28 February 2020 / Accepted: 29 February 2020 / Published: 4 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Green Energy Applications)
We report the detailed microstructural, morphological, optical and photocatalytic studies of graphene (G) and manganese (Mn) co-doped titanium dioxide nanowires (TiO2(G–Mn) NWs) prepared through facile combined electrospinning–hydrothermal processes. The as-prepared samples were thoroughly characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). XRD studies reveal the formation of mixed anatase-rutile phases or rutile phase depending on the dopant (Mn) precursor concentrations in the electrospinning dope and calcination temperature. The evaluation of lattice parameters revealed that the incorporation of Mn species and carbon atoms in to the lattice of anatase or rutile TiO2 could occur through substituting the sites of oxygen atoms. XPS results confirm the existence of Mn2+/Mn3+ within the TiO2 NW. Raman spectroscopy provides the evidence for structural modification because of the graphene inclusion in TiO2 NW. The optical band gap of G–Mn including TiO2 is much lower than pristine TiO2 as confirmed through UV-vis DRS. The photocatalytic activities were evaluated by nitric oxide (NOx) degradation tests under visible light irradiation. Superior catalytic activity was witnessed for rutile G–Mn-co-doped TiO2 NW over their anatase counterparts. The enhanced photocatalytic property was discussed based on the synergistic effects of doped G and Mn atoms and explained by plausible mechanisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: titanium dioxide nanowires; graphene and manganese inclusion; phase transformation; photocatalytic performance; synergistic effects titanium dioxide nanowires; graphene and manganese inclusion; phase transformation; photocatalytic performance; synergistic effects
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, J.-C.; Gopalan, A.-I.; Saianand, G.; Lee, K.-P.; Kim, W.-J. Manganese and Graphene Included Titanium Dioxide Composite Nanowires: Fabrication, Characterization and Enhanced Photocatalytic Activities. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 456. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030456

AMA Style

Lee J-C, Gopalan A-I, Saianand G, Lee K-P, Kim W-J. Manganese and Graphene Included Titanium Dioxide Composite Nanowires: Fabrication, Characterization and Enhanced Photocatalytic Activities. Nanomaterials. 2020; 10(3):456. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030456

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Jun-Cheol; Gopalan, Anantha-Iyengar; Saianand, Gopalan; Lee, Kwang-Pill; Kim, Wha-Jung. 2020. "Manganese and Graphene Included Titanium Dioxide Composite Nanowires: Fabrication, Characterization and Enhanced Photocatalytic Activities" Nanomaterials 10, no. 3: 456. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030456

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