Next Article in Journal
Electrodeposition of Bi-Te Thin Films on Silicon Wafer and Micro-Column Arrays on Microporous Glass Template
Previous Article in Journal
Electroactive 3D Printed Scaffolds Based on Percolated Composites of Polycaprolactone with Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide for Antibacterial and Tissue Engineering Applications
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Use of Two-Photon Lithography with a Negative Resist and Processing to Realise Cylindrical Magnetic Nanowires

School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 429; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030429
Received: 14 January 2020 / Revised: 13 February 2020 / Accepted: 22 February 2020 / Published: 28 February 2020
Cylindrical magnetic nanowires have been shown to exhibit a vast array of fascinating spin textures, including chiral domains, skyrmion tubes, and topologically protected domain walls that harbor Bloch points. Here, we present a novel methodology that utilizes two-photon lithography in order to realize tailored three-dimensional (3D) porous templates upon prefabricated electrodes. Electrochemical deposition is used to fill these porous templates, and reactive ion etching is used to free the encased magnetic nanowires. The nanowires are found to have a diameter of 420 nm, length of 2.82 μm, and surface roughness of 7.6 nm. Magnetic force microscopy in an externally applied field suggests a complex spiraling magnetization state, which demagnetizes via the production of vortices of alternating chirality. Detailed micro-magnetic simulations confirm such a state and a qualitative agreement is found with respect to the switching of experimental nanowires. Surprisingly, simulations also indicate the presence of a Bloch point as a metastable state during the switching process. Our work provides a new means to realize 3D magnetic nanowires of controlled geometry and calculations suggest a further reduction in diameter to sub-200 nm will be possible, providing access to a regime of ultrafast domain wall motion. View Full-Text
Keywords: two-photon lithography; Bloch point; magnetic nanowire; 3D nanomagnetism; electrodeposition; micro-magnetic simulations; magnetic force microscopy two-photon lithography; Bloch point; magnetic nanowire; 3D nanomagnetism; electrodeposition; micro-magnetic simulations; magnetic force microscopy
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Askey, J.; Hunt, M.O.; Langbein, W.; Ladak, S. Use of Two-Photon Lithography with a Negative Resist and Processing to Realise Cylindrical Magnetic Nanowires. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 429.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop