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Partial Oxidation Strategy to Synthesize WS2/WO3 Heterostructure with Enhanced Adsorption Performance for Organic Dyes: Synthesis, Modelling, and Mechanism

Toward Large-Scale Production of Oxidized Graphene

Department of Chemistry and Exact Sciences, Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, Loja EC-110160, Ecuador
Faculty of Science & Mechanical Engineering, Escuela Superior Politécnica de Chimborazo, Riobamba EC-060155, Ecuador
UNICARIBE Research Center, University of Calabria, I-87036 Rende (CS), Italy
GraphenTech NL, Olympiaweg 28A, 3077AL Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Surface Nanoscience Group, Department of Physics, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, Cubo 33C, I-87036 Rende, Italy
Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo, Area de Ciencias Básicas y Ambientales, Av. Los Próceres, Santo Domingo 10602, Dominican Republic
CompNano, Yachay Tech University, School of Physical Sciences and Nanotechnology, Urcuquí EC-100119, Ecuador
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(2), 279;
Received: 9 January 2020 / Revised: 28 January 2020 / Accepted: 1 February 2020 / Published: 6 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Synthesis, Interfaces and Nanostructures)
The oxidative exfoliation of graphite is a promising approach to the large-scale production of graphene. Conventional oxidation of graphite essentially facilitates the exfoliation process; however, the oxidation procedure releases toxic gases and requires extensive, time-consuming steps of washing and reduction to convert exfoliated graphene oxide (GO) into reduced graphene oxide (rGO). Although toxic gases can be controlled by modifying chemical reactions, filtration, dialysis, and extensive sonication are unfavorable for large-scale production. Here, we report a complete, scalable, and green synthesis of GO, without NaNO3, followed by reduction with citric acid (CA). This approach eliminates the generation of toxic gases, simplifies the washing steps, and reduces the time required to prepare rGO. To validate the proposed method, we present spectroscopical and morphological studies, using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), UV-visible spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) is used to analyze the thermal properties of GO and rGO. This eco-friendly method proposes a complete guideline protocol toward large-scale production of oxidized graphene, with potential applications in supercapacitors, fuel cells, composites, batteries, and biosensors. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene; oxidized graphene; citric acid; large-scale production graphene; oxidized graphene; citric acid; large-scale production
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tene, T.; Tubon Usca, G.; Guevara, M.; Molina, R.; Veltri, F.; Arias, M.; Caputi, L.S.; Vacacela Gomez, C. Toward Large-Scale Production of Oxidized Graphene. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 279.

AMA Style

Tene T, Tubon Usca G, Guevara M, Molina R, Veltri F, Arias M, Caputi LS, Vacacela Gomez C. Toward Large-Scale Production of Oxidized Graphene. Nanomaterials. 2020; 10(2):279.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tene, Talia, Gabriela Tubon Usca, Marco Guevara, Raul Molina, Francesco Veltri, Melvin Arias, Lorenzo S. Caputi, and Cristian Vacacela Gomez. 2020. "Toward Large-Scale Production of Oxidized Graphene" Nanomaterials 10, no. 2: 279.

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