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Article

Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Induced HeLa Cell Necrosis under UVA Radiation through the ROS-mPTP Pathway

by 1,†, 1,†, 1, 1, 1, 1,2, 1,2,* and 1,3,*
1
College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
2
National Engineering Research Center for Nanomedicine, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
3
Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Center for Human Genome Research, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2029; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102029
Received: 16 September 2020 / Revised: 9 October 2020 / Accepted: 11 October 2020 / Published: 15 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanotoxicology)
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2), as a common nanomaterial, are widely used in water purification, paint, skincare and sunscreens. Its safety has always been a concern. Prior studies have shown that ultraviolet A (UVA) can exacerbate the toxicity of nano-TiO2, including inducing cell apoptosis, changing glycosylation levels, arresting cell cycle, inhibiting tumor cell and bacterial growth. However, whether the combination of UVA and nano-TiO2 cause cell necrosis and its mechanism are still rarely reported. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity and phototoxicity of mixture crystalline nano-TiO2 (25% rutile and 75% anatase, 21 nm) under UVA irradiation in HeLa cells. Our results showed that the abnormal membrane integrity and the ultrastructure of HeLa cells, together with the decreased viability induced by nano-TiO2 under UVA irradiation, were due to cell necrosis rather than caspase-dependent apoptosis. Furthermore, nano-TiO2 and UVA generated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and caused the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) of HeLa cells to abnormally open. Cell viability was significantly increased after adding vitamin C (VC) or cyclosporin A (CsA) individually to inhibit ROS and mPTP. Clearance of ROS could not only impede the opening of mPTP but also reduce the rate of cell necrosis. The results suggest the possible mechanism of HeLa cell necrosis caused by nano-TiO2 under UVA irradiation through the ROS-mPTP pathway. View Full-Text
Keywords: nano-TiO2; UVA; cell necrosis; reactive oxygen species; mitochondrial permeability transition pore nano-TiO2; UVA; cell necrosis; reactive oxygen species; mitochondrial permeability transition pore
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MDPI and ACS Style

Geng, R.; Ren, Y.; Rao, R.; Tan, X.; Zhou, H.; Yang, X.; Liu, W.; Lu, Q. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Induced HeLa Cell Necrosis under UVA Radiation through the ROS-mPTP Pathway. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 2029. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102029

AMA Style

Geng R, Ren Y, Rao R, Tan X, Zhou H, Yang X, Liu W, Lu Q. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Induced HeLa Cell Necrosis under UVA Radiation through the ROS-mPTP Pathway. Nanomaterials. 2020; 10(10):2029. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102029

Chicago/Turabian Style

Geng, Runqing, Yuanyuan Ren, Rong Rao, Xi Tan, Hong Zhou, Xiangliang Yang, Wei Liu, and Qunwei Lu. 2020. "Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Induced HeLa Cell Necrosis under UVA Radiation through the ROS-mPTP Pathway" Nanomaterials 10, no. 10: 2029. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102029

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