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Open AccessReview

Genotoxicity of Nanomaterials: Advanced In Vitro Models and High Throughput Methods for Human Hazard Assessment—A Review

1
Fraunhofer Institute for Biomedical Engineering IBMT, 66280 Sulzbach, Germany
2
Health Effects Laboratory, NILU-Norwegian Institute for Air Research, 2007 Kjeller, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 1911; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10101911
Received: 1 September 2020 / Revised: 17 September 2020 / Accepted: 22 September 2020 / Published: 25 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Nanoinformatics to Nanomaterials Risk Assessment and Governance)
Changes in the genetic material can lead to serious human health defects, as mutations in somatic cells may cause cancer and can contribute to other chronic diseases. Genotoxic events can appear at both the DNA, chromosomal or (during mitosis) whole genome level. The study of mechanisms leading to genotoxicity is crucially important, as well as the detection of potentially genotoxic compounds. We consider the current state of the art and describe here the main endpoints applied in standard human in vitro models as well as new advanced 3D models that are closer to the in vivo situation. We performed a literature review of in vitro studies published from 2000–2020 (August) dedicated to the genotoxicity of nanomaterials (NMs) in new models. Methods suitable for detection of genotoxicity of NMs will be presented with a focus on advances in miniaturization, organ-on-a-chip and high throughput methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanomaterials; genotoxicity; in vitro 3D models; high throughput methods; miniaturization nanomaterials; genotoxicity; in vitro 3D models; high throughput methods; miniaturization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kohl, Y.; Rundén-Pran, E.; Mariussen, E.; Hesler, M.; El Yamani, N.; Longhin, E.M.; Dusinska, M. Genotoxicity of Nanomaterials: Advanced In Vitro Models and High Throughput Methods for Human Hazard Assessment—A Review. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 1911. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10101911

AMA Style

Kohl Y, Rundén-Pran E, Mariussen E, Hesler M, El Yamani N, Longhin EM, Dusinska M. Genotoxicity of Nanomaterials: Advanced In Vitro Models and High Throughput Methods for Human Hazard Assessment—A Review. Nanomaterials. 2020; 10(10):1911. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10101911

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kohl, Yvonne; Rundén-Pran, Elise; Mariussen, Espen; Hesler, Michelle; El Yamani, Naouale; Longhin, Eleonora M.; Dusinska, Maria. 2020. "Genotoxicity of Nanomaterials: Advanced In Vitro Models and High Throughput Methods for Human Hazard Assessment—A Review" Nanomaterials 10, no. 10: 1911. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10101911

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