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Open AccessArticle

Intracellular Antioxidant Activity of Biocompatible Citrate-Capped Palladium Nanozymes

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Nanobiointeractions & Nanodiagnostics, Center for Biomolecular Nanotechnologies, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Barsanti, 73010 Arnesano, Lecce, Italy
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Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy
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Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Torino, 10043 Orbassano (Torino), Italy
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Electron Microscopy Laboratory, Nanochemistry Department, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, 16163 Genova, Italy
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Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche e Ambientali (Di.S.Te.B.A.), Università del Salento, via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy
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School of Pharmacy, Via Gentile III da Varano, University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino, Italy
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Nanobiointeractions & Nanodiagnostics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, 16163 Genova, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equally contributing authors.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(1), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10010099
Received: 28 November 2019 / Revised: 20 December 2019 / Accepted: 28 December 2019 / Published: 3 January 2020
A method for the aqueous synthesis of stable and biocompatible citrate-coated palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) in the size range comparable to natural enzymes (4–8 nm) has been developed. The toxicological profile of PdNPs was assessed by different assays on several cell lines demonstrating their safety in vitro also at high particle concentrations. To elucidate their cellular fate upon uptake, the localization of PdNPs was analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Moreover, crucial information about their intracellular stability and oxidation state was obtained by Sputtering-Enabled Intracellular X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (SEI-XPS). TEM/XPS results showed significant stability of PdNPs in the cellular environment, an important feature for their biocompatibility and potential for biomedical applications. On the catalytic side, these PdNPs exhibited strong and broad antioxidant activities, being able to mimic the three main antioxidant cellular enzymes, i.e., peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. Remarkably, using an experimental model of a human oxidative stress-related disease, we demonstrated the effectiveness of PdNPs as antioxidant nanozymes within the cellular environment, showing that they are able to completely re-establish the physiological Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) levels in highly compromised intracellular redox conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: palladium nanoparticles; aqueous synthesis; nanozymes; oxidative stress; antioxidants; scavengers; toxicology; SEI-XPS palladium nanoparticles; aqueous synthesis; nanozymes; oxidative stress; antioxidants; scavengers; toxicology; SEI-XPS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Moglianetti, M.; Pedone, D.; Udayan, G.; Retta, S.F.; Debellis, D.; Marotta, R.; Turco, A.; Rella, S.; Malitesta, C.; Bonacucina, G.; De Luca, E.; Pompa, P.P. Intracellular Antioxidant Activity of Biocompatible Citrate-Capped Palladium Nanozymes. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 99.

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