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Article

Cytotoxic Effects of Plant Sap-Derived Extracellular Vesicles on Various Tumor Cell Types

1
Department of Integrative Biosciences, University of Brain Education, Cheonan 31228, Korea
2
Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34051, Korea
3
Electron Microscopy Research Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Cheongju 28119, Korea
4
School of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06911, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb11020022
Received: 11 February 2020 / Revised: 19 March 2020 / Accepted: 20 March 2020 / Published: 2 April 2020
Edible plants have been widely used in traditional therapeutics because of the biological activities of their natural ingredients, including anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Plant sap contains such medicinal substances and their secondary metabolites provide unique chemical structures that contribute to their therapeutic efficacy. Plant extracts are known to contain a variety of extracellular vesicles (EVs) but the effects of such EVs on various cancers have not been investigated. Here, we extracted EVs from four plants—Dendropanax morbifera, Pinus densiflora, Thuja occidentalis, and Chamaecyparis obtusa—that are known to have cytotoxic effects. We evaluated the cytotoxic effects of these EVs by assessing their ability to selectively reduce the viability of various tumor cell types compared with normal cells and low metastatic cells. EVs from D. morbifera and P. densiflora sap showed strong cytotoxic effects on tumor cells, whereas those from T. occidentalis and C. obtusa had no significant effect on any tumor cell types. We also identified synergistic effect of EVs from D. morbifera and P. densiflora saps on breast and skin tumor cells and established optimized treatment concentrations. Our findings suggest these EVs from plant sap as new candidates for cancer treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: plant sap; extracellular vesicles; cytotoxic effects; selective toxicity; synergistic effect plant sap; extracellular vesicles; cytotoxic effects; selective toxicity; synergistic effect
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, K.; Yoo, H.J.; Jung, J.-H.; Lee, R.; Hyun, J.-K.; Park, J.-H.; Na, D.; Yeon, J.H. Cytotoxic Effects of Plant Sap-Derived Extracellular Vesicles on Various Tumor Cell Types. J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11, 22. https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb11020022

AMA Style

Kim K, Yoo HJ, Jung J-H, Lee R, Hyun J-K, Park J-H, Na D, Yeon JH. Cytotoxic Effects of Plant Sap-Derived Extracellular Vesicles on Various Tumor Cell Types. Journal of Functional Biomaterials. 2020; 11(2):22. https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb11020022

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Kimin, Hye Ju Yoo, Jik-Han Jung, Ruri Lee, Jae-Kyung Hyun, Ji-Ho Park, Dokyun Na, and Ju Hun Yeon. 2020. "Cytotoxic Effects of Plant Sap-Derived Extracellular Vesicles on Various Tumor Cell Types" Journal of Functional Biomaterials 11, no. 2: 22. https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb11020022

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