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Open AccessArticle

Cerium Dioxide Particles to Tune Radiopacity of Dental Adhesives: Microstructural and Physico-Chemical Evaluation

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Dental Materials Laboratory, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2492, Rio Branco, Porto Alegre, RS 90035-003, Brazil
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Laboratory for Electrochemical Processes and Corrosion, Engineering School, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Prédio 43427, Sala 216, Porto Alegre, RS 91501-970, Brazil
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Laboratory of Ceramic Materials, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Osvaldo Aranha 99, Porto Alegre, RS 90035-003, Brazil
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Division of Operative Dentistry, Department of General Dentistry, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
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Ph.D. Program in Biomedical Sciences, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb11010007
Received: 16 January 2020 / Revised: 6 February 2020 / Accepted: 6 February 2020 / Published: 11 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacterial Interactions with Dental and Medical Materials)
The insufficient radiopacity of dental adhesives applied under composite restorations makes the radiographic diagnosis of recurrent caries challenging. Consequently, the misdiagnosis may lead to unnecessary replacement of restorations. The aims of this study were to formulate experimental dental adhesives containing cerium dioxide (CeO2) and investigate the effects of different loadings of CeO2 on their radiopacity and degree of conversion for the first time. CeO2 was characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy, and laser diffraction for particle size analysis. Experimental dental adhesives were formulated with CeO2 as the inorganic filler with loadings ranging from 0.36 to 5.76 vol.%. The unfilled adhesive was used as a control. The studied adhesives were evaluated for dispersion of CeO2 in the polymerized samples, degree of conversion, and radiopacity. CeO2 presented a monoclinic crystalline phase, peaks related to Ce-O bonding, and an average particle size of around 16 µm. CeO2 was dispersed in the adhesive, and the addition of these particles increased the adhesives’ radiopacity (p < 0.05). There was a significant decrease in the degree of conversion with CeO2 loadings higher than 1.44 vol.%. However, all materials showed a similar degree of conversion in comparison to commercially available adhesives. CeO2 particles were investigated for the first time as a promising compound to improve the radiopacity of the dental adhesives.
Keywords: dental materials; dentistry; adhesives; light-curing of dental adhesives; composite resins; methylmethacrylate; oxides; cerium; polymers; dentine bonding agents dental materials; dentistry; adhesives; light-curing of dental adhesives; composite resins; methylmethacrylate; oxides; cerium; polymers; dentine bonding agents
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Garcia, I.M.; Leitune, V.C.B.; Takimi, A.S.; Bergmann, C.P.; Samuel, S.M.W.; Melo, M.A.; Collares, F.M. Cerium Dioxide Particles to Tune Radiopacity of Dental Adhesives: Microstructural and Physico-Chemical Evaluation. J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11, 7.

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