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Open AccessArticle

Enhanced Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Fetal Cartilage Rudiment Cells on Graphene Oxide-PLGA Hybrid Microparticles

1
School of Natural Sciences (Chemistry), University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7001, Australia
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Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
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Centre for Advanced Macromolecular Design, School of Chemical Engineering, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb10030033
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 25 July 2019 / Published: 30 July 2019
Poly(d,l–lactide–co–glycolide) (PLGA) has been extensively explored for bone regeneration applications; however, its clinical use is limited by low osteointegration. Therefore, approaches that incorporate osteoconductive molecules are of great interest. Graphene oxide (GO) is gaining popularity for biomedical applications due to its ability to bind biological molecules and present them for enhanced bioactivity. This study reports the preparation of PLGA microparticles via Pickering emulsification using GO as the sole surfactant, which resulted in hybrid microparticles in the size range of 1.1 to 2.4 µm based on the ratio of GO to PLGA in the reaction. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that the hybrid GO-PLGA microparticles were not cytotoxic to either primary human fetal cartilage rudiment cells or the human osteoblast-like cell line, Saos-2. Additionally, the GO-PLGA microparticles promoted the osteogenic differentiation of the human fetal cartilage rudiment cells in the absence of exogenous growth factors to a greater extent than PLGA alone. These findings demonstrate that GO-PLGA microparticles are cytocompatible, osteoinductive and have potential as substrates for bone tissue engineering. View Full-Text
Keywords: PLGA; graphene oxide; osteoblast; stem cell; bone tissue engineering PLGA; graphene oxide; osteoblast; stem cell; bone tissue engineering
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MDPI and ACS Style

Thickett, S.C.; Hamilton, E.; Yogeswaran, G.; Zetterlund, P.B.; Farrugia, B.L.; Lord, M.S. Enhanced Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Fetal Cartilage Rudiment Cells on Graphene Oxide-PLGA Hybrid Microparticles. J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10, 33.

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