Film cooling enhancement by incorporating an upstream sand-dune-shaped ramp (SDSR) to the film hole exit was numerically investigated on a flat plate under typical blowing ratios ranging from 0.5 to 1.5. Three heights of SDSRs were designed: 0.25D
, and 0.75D
. The results indicated that the upstream SDSR effectively controlled the near-wall primary flow and subsequent mutual interaction with the coolant jet, which was the main mechanism of the film cooling enhancement. First, a pair of anti-kidney vortices was formed at the trailing ridges of the SDSR, which helped suppress the kidney vortex pair due to the interaction between the coolant jet and the primary flow. Second, a weak separation and a low pressure zone were induced behind the backside of the SDSR, which caused the coolant jet to spread around the film cooling hole and improve the lateral film coverage. With respect to the baseline cylindrical film cooling holes, the effect of the upstream SDSR was distinct under different blowing ratios. Under a low blowing ratio, the upstream SDSR shortened the streetwise film layer coverage in the vicinity of the film hole centerline but increased the span-wise film layer coverage. A relatively optimal ramp height seemed to be 0.5D
. Under a high blowing ratio, both the streamwise and span-wise film layer coverages improved in comparison with the baseline case. The film cooling effectiveness improved gradually with increasing ramp height.
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